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2008 GCSE 결과 - 지원 과목 수 줄고 성적 등급 향상

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주영한국교육원
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17:49 28 Aug 2008
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2008 GCSE 결과 - 지원 과목 수는 줄고 성적 등급은 향상

□ ‘양’보다 ‘질’
- 2008 GCSE 결과 8월 21일 발표
- 총 지원자수 750,000명, 총 치러진 과목수 5,669,077 : 지원자 1인당 평균 7.6 과목의 시험을 치름.
- 상위 등급 성적이 지난 20년 중 가장 큰 상승폭을 보인 반면, 지원 과목수 는 크게 줄어듦
- A* 또는 A 등급 비율 : 20% 이상, 예년에 비해 1.2% 증가
- C 등급 이상 비율 : 65.7%. 예년에 비해 2.4% 증가
- G 등급(통과 최저 등급) 이상 통과 비율 : 98.4%, 예년에 비해 0.4% 상승

□ 2008 GCSE 전체 치러진 시험 과목 수 하락과 그 이유
- 전체 치러진 시험 과목수 : 3%(158,242) 하락
- 이유
▪ 2007-2008년 16세 학생 수 6,000명 감소
▪ 수학, 영어 시험을 미리 치르는 현상
a. 11월에 수학 및 영어 시험을 미리 보는 학생 수가 증가하여 여름에 치러지는 GCSE에서 10,000명 가량 수학 시험 포기함
b. 다른 과목에 더욱 집중하여 여름에 GCSE 시험 치름으로서 수학 관련 과목에 시간 할애 가능
c. AS-level 수학 과목 일찍 시작(OCR 시험본부 Greg Watson)
▪ 사립학교에서 International GCSE(I-GCSE)를 선택
- City of London boys’ school의 경우
a. 2006년 9월 학기부터 6개 과목의 I-GCSEs 채택(영어, 영문학, 수학, 물리학, 화학, 생물학)
b. 절반가량(49%)의 학생이 A* 등급 획득
c. 학교장 David Levin : I-GCSE에는 Coursework (수행평가)가 포함되지 않아 이를 싫어하는 남학교 학생들에게 중요 과목만 집중적으로 가르칠 수 있게 되므로 이점임
▪ 공립학교에서 직업 자격증을 선호하여 GCSEs를 치르지 않음(Edexcel 시험본부 Jerry Jarvis)
▪ 학생 한 명당 치르는 과목의 수가 2003년 8개에서 2008년 7개로 감소(AQA 시험본부 Mike Cresswell)
▪ 학교에서 과목 전체수 ‘양’보다 실제 취득 학점 ‘질’이 중요함을 인식 : 10개에서 12개까지 과목을 공부하는 학생에 득 될 것이 없고, 8개, 9개 과목을 공부하여 좋은 점수를 받는 것이 낫다는 의견 (학교, 컬리지 리더 연합 John Dunford)

□ 2008 GCSEs 결과 과목별 분석
- 외국어 학습 학생 수의 감소
▪ 2003년 547,189명에서 2008년 382,228명으로 30% 감소
▪ 주요 이유 : 2004년부터 14세 이상의 학생에게 외국어가 필수 과목에 포함되지 않음
▪ 불어 6.8%, 독어 5.4% 지원자 수 감소. 단, 스페인어 지원자 수 상승
- IT 지원자 수 감소(14,000명) : IT 과목의 학교 수업 일정이 이론적이기 때문에 보다 실용적인 자격증 획득을 선호하는 학생들로 인한 슬럼프 현상
- 과학 지원자 수 증가: 생물학 35%, 화학 29.4%, 물리학 29.1% 증가

□ GCSE 결과에 따른 학교 운영 변화
- 정부 목표 : 일반 중등학교 대상 영어, 수학을 포함한 5개 이상의 과목에서 최소 C를 받는 학생 수 30% 이상
- 이를 넘지 못할 경우 ‘Government’s National Challenge‘ 목록(2007년 기준 638개)에 속하며, 예년 대비 괄목할 성장이 없는 학교는 해당 지역 교육청에서 제외되고 폐교 후 준사립 학교인 ’아카데미‘로 재개교 됨
- 목록에 속했던 학교 중 기준을 통과한 학교 : 여전히 목록에 속하게 되며, 해당 프로그램을 통해 2009년 1월까지 4억 파운드가 학교로 지원될 예정
- 기준을 통과하지 못한 70개 학교 및 목록에 속하지 않았던 50개 학교가 아카데미로 전환될 예정
* 아카데미 : 사업체, 대학 등에서 자금 조달을 받아 운영되는 중등교육기관으로 일반학교에 비해 수업 커리큘럼에 융통성이 주어짐

□ 통계 자료(요약)

gcse


□ 기사 원문 보기

Sharp fall in number of GCSE entries
-The Times, August 22, 2008


Teenagers scored record GCSE results yesterday with the biggest rise in top grades for nearly 20 years. But the results also show a sharp fall in GCSE entries, suggesting that schools are concentrating more on the quality than the quantity.

More than one in five exam papers was awarded an A* or A this year and the proportion achieving at least a grade C soared to two thirds. The overall pass rate at all grades rose slightly this year to 98.4 per cent. Despite record rises in results, the number of GCSE exams taken by all students fell by 158,242, or nearly three per cent.

This can partly be explained by a 6,000 fall in the number of 16-year-olds between 2007 and 2008, but exam board chiefs suggested that other factors were at work.

The growing tendency for schools to enter their brightest students for maths and, to a lesser extent, English GCSEs early in the academic year, in November, accounts for about 10,000 of the drop in maths entries.

This frees students to concentrate more on their remaining GCSEs in the summer. In the case of maths, it gives students more time to devote to maths-related subjects, such as additional maths and statistics in the summer. It will also enable the brightest students to start studying for the AS-level maths early, according to Greg Watson, chief executive of the OCR exam board.

The drop in entries is also explained by the growing numbers of independent schools that are opting out of GCSEs in favour of the International GCSE exam (I-GCSE), which they regard as more stretching than the standard exam. At City of London boys’ school in London, the head teacher, David Levin, decided in September 2006 to take English language, English literature, maths, physics, chemistry and biology I-GCSEs.

No other school takes as many and this year the school achieved its best results, with nearly half its entries (49 per cent) coming in at A*. “The I-GCSE is better because there is no coursework involved. That’s particularly important for us as a boys’ school because boys hate coursework. This frees us to teach the boys the core subjects for longer,” Mr Levin said.

Jerry Jarvis, managing director of the Edexcel exam board, said that there was also plenty of evidence that state schools were dropping GCSEs for some pupils in favour of vocational qualifications.

Mike Cresswell, director-general of the AQA board, said that the number of GCSEs taken by each student had also been in steady decline from just over eight in 2003 to just over seven.

John Dunford, general secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders, said that schools appeared to be concentrating more on quality, not quantity of results. “They recognise that it’s of no benefit to a pupil to do 10, 11 or 12 GCSEs. It’s better to have eight or nine good grades,” he said.

The results also showed a continued decline in the number of teenagers studying foreign languages, the result of a government decision in 2004 that languages should no longer be compulsory after age 14. The number of French GCSE entries was down by 6.8 per cent on last year while German dropped by 5.4 per cent. The number of pupils taking Spanish rose.

There was a large slump too, also a continuation of a previous trend, in the number of pupils taking information technology, with entries down by more than 14,000. This suggests that the current GCSE syllabus, which tends to be rather theoretical, is turning away students, who prefer instead to sit more applied qualifications in the subject.

There were gains in the number of science entries with biology up by 35.3 per cent, chemistry up 29.4 per cent and physics up 29.1 per cent.

In all the A* euphoria, failing schools pin hopes on five Cs

-The Times, August 22, 2008

Nearly 200 struggling secondary schools could be put under new management unless their GCSE results today are much better than last year’s.

Teenagers across the country are expected to be celebrating another record year, with one in five securing five A or A* passes. But five Cs will be enough to cheer 638 heads whose schools are on the Government’s National Challenge list.

These failed last year to reach the Government’s minimum target of 30 per cent of pupils gaining five or more GCSEs - including English and maths - at grade C or above. They were told in June that if they did not show significant improvement, they could be taken out of local authority control, closed and reopened as semi-independent academies or trusts.

Academies are run with the help of outside sponsors, such as businesses, colleges or universities. Such schools are allowed more flexibility in their curriculum and staffing in an attempt to raise standards, but teachers fear that their salaries may be cut as academies and trusts do not have to apply national pay scales.


It is estimated that up to 70 National Challenge schools could be converted into academies and a similar number could become trusts, which are also taken from council control. These secondaries are linked to high-performing neighbouring schools and an external partner, such as a business or university. Fifty further underperforming secondaries that are not on the National Challenge list may also be turned into trusts.

The Government wants to create 400 academies; 83 have been set up already and another 47 are likely to open next month.

About 200 schools on the list of 638 underperformers are expected to exceed the 30 per cent target when the results are published today, but they will still have to stay in the National Challenge programme, which will provide £400 million of extra support and resources, at least until January.

The Department for Children Schools and Families also confirmed yesterday that schools that were on or just above the 30 per cent line last year may be added to the National Challenge list next term if they appear to be on a downward spiral.

For many National Challenge schools, however, today’s results will bring a welcome reprieve. At Perry Beeches Secondary School in Birming-ham, for example, the proportion of students achieving five good GCSEs has risen from 21 to 51 per cent. Liam Nolan, the head teacher appointed just over a year ago, said: “We’ve done it through good old-fashioned class-room teaching and discipline. School uniform has to be perfect, students and staff have to respect each other and there is no shouting.”

Heather Roberts, head teacher of Aston Manor School, also in Birming-ham, has seen her pupils’ results rise from 28 to 40 per cent this year. This has been achieved through holding Saturday morning classes for GCSE students as well as extra revision classes for during holidays.