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영국 교장 세계 최고 수준의 보수

Author
주영한국교육원
Date
21:43 01 Sep 2008
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2233
< 영국 교장 세계 최고 수준의 보수 >

□ OECD(국제협력개발기구)의 학교 리더 연구 결과 발표
- 영국(UK)의 학교장이 세계에서 가장 높은 임금을 받으며, 학교 지도력 개선에 대한 노력 역시 최고로 밝혀짐
- 세계적으로 관료주의, 시험 시행 등으로 인한 과중한 업무부담으로 인해 교장 고용에 있어 어려움을 겪을 것으로 예상

□ 영국 교장의 임금 내용
- 국민 1인당 GDP 대비 영국 교장이 가장 많은 임금을 받음
- 학교장의 실질 임금인상폭은 19%(1997년부터 2003년까지 6년간)로 공사립 기관 근무자의 평균 임금 상승률인 12%를 상회함

□ OECD 보고서 내용
- 학교장연합National College for School Leadership (NSCL)의 교장 연수 및 지도력 개발 프로그램이 교육에 긍정적인 영향을 끼친 것으로 평가
- 정부가 교장 직에 책임과 의무를 증가시킴으로서 업무가 지나치게 가중되는 것에 대한 우려
- 학부모 및 지역 사회에 대한 책임감, 규율 시행 및 장학 업무, 학교간 성적 비교표 게시에 대한 부담감 등이 지닌 부정적인 영향 지적
- 교장의 부족 : 15개의 OECD 국가들(13개 유럽국가 및 호주, 뉴질랜드) 모두 교장 부족 현상을 겪고 있음
- 이유 : 대부분이 곧 은퇴할 나이가 되고 격무, 부족한 연수 및 교육, 한정된 경력 전망 및 불충분한 보상으로 인해 자격 있는 지원자들이 지원을 꺼림
- 작은 초등학교에 더 큰 문제 : 경력 있는 교사의 부족 및 한정된 행정원으로 인해 과중해진 업무를 가르치는 일과 병행해야 함

□ 영국 학교 리더십의 변화
- 분산된 리더십 : 다수의 경력교사가 팀을 이루어 각 학교의 지도자 역할을 하고. 교장은 연합형태의 여러 학교를 동시에 운영하는 방식
- 요구되는 내용 : 다양해진 업무와 책임에 적합한 능력 개발을 위해 정기적 연수 및 교육이 요구됨
- Steve Munby(학교장 연합 대표) : 2012년까지 영국 교장의 55%가 은퇴할 것으로 예상되나, 이는 한국(교장의 99% 이상이 55세 이상임), 벨기에(81%), 덴마크(76%) 비하여 극명한 대조를 보임



UK headteachers 'best paid' in the world
-Guardian, 29 August 2008


Headteachers in the UK are among the highest paid in the world and England's approach to developing school leadership one of the best globally, according to an international study.

However, schools around the world are in danger of being overburdened by bureaucracy and the demands of testing, and will struggle to find headteachers as a result, found the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s school leadership study.

UK headteachers were found to be the best paid school leaders compared to per capita GDP.

School leaders' earnings grew by 19% in real terms between 1997 and 2003 compared with the overall average earnings of public and private sector workers (12%), the report found.

Researchers recommend this fact be used to make the profession more attractive.

The report, published yesterday, praised headteacher training and leadership development from the National College for School Leadership (NSCL) as having a "positive impact on education".

But, while the report paints a healthy picture of UK teaching, it says government reforms have increased headteachers' responsibilities and duties, which has, in England, made their role "much more demanding and challenging".

This includes greater accountability to parents and communities, dealing with policy initiatives and preparing for school inspections as well as the burden school league tables place on schools, which have a negative impact, the OECD research found.

All 15 of the OECD countries involved in the study, which featured 13 European states, Australia and New Zealand, face shortages of headteachers.

"In many countries, principals have heavy workloads; many are reaching retirement and it is getting harder to replace them. Potential candidates often hesitate to apply, because of overburdened roles, insufficient preparation and training, limited career prospects and inadequate support and rewards," the research found.

This is more of a problem for small and primary schools, where absence of senior staff, limited administrative assistance and an overburdened role - often combining full time teaching with managerial tasks - call for special support, it added.

According to the report, school leadership is now a priority in education agendas worldwide and plays a key role in improving pupil attainment, by influencing and motivating teachers as well as the school climate and wider environment.

Over the past few years the nature of school leadership in England has changed. Some now employ a team of leaders to take on different roles within the school – "distributed leadership" – while heads can be found running several schools, often in federations and trusts.

But the report says school leaders need more time and support to focus on ways of improving learning further.

They also need more professional development to cope with broadened roles and responsibilities expected of them.

In-service training should be offered periodically to principals and leadership teams so they can update their skills and keep up with new developments, the report suggests.

Steve Munby, chief executive of NSCL, said: "Over the past eight years NCSL has worked long and hard with headteachers and other school leaders across England to raise the bar for everyone by providing specialist training through targeted programmes … through ongoing advice and support such as at regional stakeholder meetings countrywide and online forums.

"However, we aren't complacent and have to continue working hard to ensure we inspire leaders and improve children's lives."

On the headteachers shortage, Munby anticipates that up to 55% of UK heads will retire by 2012, but this is in stark contrast to the problems being experienced by Korea, which has 99% of its heads aged over 50, Belgium (81%) and Denmark (76%).