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A to Z of UK education

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20:57 03 Mar 2009
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A to Z of UK education

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Absence on medical grounds
When a child is absent from school on medical grounds it is important that they are able to keep up with their studies, as far as their medical condition allows.

Academies
City Academies-re publicly funded independent secondary schools with sponsors from the private or voluntary sectors or from churches or other faith groups.

Access to scripts
From summer 2000 GCSE, A and AS cadidates have had access to marked scripts.

Accredited ICT service suppliers
The creation of a new accreditation mark for the provision of ICT services to educational institutions introduces a number of changes from the accreditation process developed for NGfL Managed Services.

Activities for young people
The Activities for young people programme for 16 year olds, also known as the uproject, came about through the need for intervention at specific transition stages in learning.

Admission appeals
Governing body admission authorities must establish independent appeal panels so that parents can appeal against any decision not to offer their child a place at the school, (even if they have been offered a place at another school).

Advertising in schools
Acceptance of advertising, by display of posters, distribution of leaflets or any other direct method, by a school is at the discretion of the head teacher and the board of governors.

Alternative provision
Local Authorities (LAs) must offer suitable education at school, or otherwise than at mainstream school, for pupils of compulsory school age who are otherwise out of school and/or not gaining qualifications (under section 19, Education Act 1996).

Annual parents' meetings
The Education Bill 2005 has removed the requirement for governing bodies to produce a Governors' Annual Report. The Governors' Annual Report has been replaced with the School Profile.

Annual report to parents
The Education Bill 2005 has removed the requirement for governing bodies to produce a Governors' Annual Report. The Governors' Annual Report has been replaced with the School Profile.

Annual schools census
Every school is required to supply information to the DfES each January through the Annual Schools Census (ASC), formerly known as “Form 7”.

Anti-bullying policy
A model policy that schools can use as a template when devising an anti-bullying policy.

Appointment of staff
Head teachers have a professional duty to participate in the selection and appointment of teaching and non-teaching staff other than head teachers.

Area guidelines for schools
Area guidelines for schools have been revised, simplified and increased. From 1 April 2004, Building Bulletin 82: Area Guidelines for Schools?(and its draft revisions) have been superseded by two new publications.

Art and Design
Art and design is a key component of a balanced and rounded education for all children.

Asbestos
Airborne asbestos fibres are very hazardous to health. The main area of risk is work on existing buildings.

Assessment results
The Data Collection Agency (DCA) is managed by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) on behalf of the DfES. The DCA collects data from the Key Stage 2 and 3 national curriculum test and teacher assessment results.

Assisted places scheme
The Government are phasing out the assisted places scheme and using the money saved to reduce infant class sizes in the maintained sector.

Attendance and absence
Parents have the primary responsibility for ensuring that children of compulsory school age (i.e. 5 to 16 year olds) receive a suitable education, either by regular attendance at school or otherwise.

Autumn package
National 2005 data, previously known as the Autumn Package is available via the Standards website.


Background checks on staff
It is important that thorough checks are made on anybody who will be working in a school or further education institution (including a sixth form college), both to prevent unsuitable people from gaining access to children and to maintain the integrity of the teaching profession.

Batch email to schools
Email alerts to the latest news and publications from the DfES are now available. The emails include brief summaries and contain links to the information source. The publications are available on TeacherNet’s Online Publications for schools service, where full summaries are provided.

Beacon council scheme
The Beacon Council Scheme was set up in 1998 as result of the Government's White Paper 'Modernising Local Government: In Touch With the People' by what is now the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. It provides a way of identifying centres of excellence in areas of local government, and then sharing these ideas and strategies with other councils to promote better practice.

Beacon schools
The Beacon Schools initiative is designed to raise standards through the dissemination of good practice.

Behaviour Improvement Programme (BIP)
The Behaviour Improvement Programme (BIP) was set up in July 2002 as part of the Government’s Street crime initiative. It forms a central and targeted element of the National behaviour and attendance strategy.

Benchmarking
Benchmarking is the term given to the process of measuring standards of actual performance against those achieved by others with broadly similar characteristics.

Best value
Best Value is a key element of the Government’s programme to modernise local government. The aim of Best Value is to ensure local authorities continually improve the ways that they function, having regard to economy, efficiency and effectiveness. Best Value is a statutory requirement for local authorities, including LEAs.

Bidding for funds
When preparing a bid for funds, the head teacher or designated member of the senior management team/bursar should research thoroughly the available sources of funding (see Grants for Schools).

Boarding schools
Boarding schools admit boarders as well as day pupils.

Bullying
Head teachers have a legal duty to draw up procedures to prevent bullying among pupils and to bring these procedures to the attention of staff, parents and pupils.

Bursars
The bursar role is a special one in that it is clearly a ‘support staff’ role, as ensuring the most effective use of all school resources is essential to supporting teaching and learning. At the same time bursars also have an important ‘senior management’ role in schools, as they are increasingly establishing themselves as part of school Senior Management Teams/Leadership Groups - involving strategic planning and risk management.

Business, working with
How working with businesses can help raise standards in schools.


Careers education and guidance
Head teachers and governing bodies of all maintained schools (including special schools and pupil referral units) must ensure that their school provides programmes of careers education to all pupils in Years 9 to 11. (Note. This duty will be extended to Years 7 & 8 from September 2004)

Catering services
Compulsory nutritional standards for school lunches were introduced on 1 April 2001.

Centre for Procurement Performance (CPP)
The CPP is a new unit set up by the Department for Education and Skills to promote better procurement across the education, skills, children and families system.

Charging for activities
The LEA or governing body may not charge for anything unless they have drawn up a statement of general policy on charging.

Child employment
Properly structured and regulated part-time work can help children's development and preparation for working life as long as it does not have an adverse impact on their education.

Child protection
The Children Act 1989 gives every child the right to protection from abuse and exploitation and the right to have enquires made to safeguard his or her welfare.

Children in care
Guidance on the Education of Children and Young People in Public Care, published jointly by DfES and the Department of Health, provides direction for local authorities in their role as corporate parent and aims to bring the educational attainment of young people in their care closer into line with that of their peers.

Children's Fund
The Children’s Fund is aimed at children aged 5-13 and connects Government initiatives that address social exclusion amongst children/young people and their families. The Fund is embedded within a policy context which aims to shift the agenda from remedial action towards prevention, and to build social inclusion.

Citizenship education
Citizenship education became a statutory national curriculum subject in secondary schools in September 2002. The Citizenship and Personal, Social and Health Education framework was introduced into primary schools in 2000.

City learning centres
City Learning Centres (CLCs) are a key element of the Excellence in Cities programme.

City technology colleges
CTCs are independent all-ability, non fee-paying schools for pupils aged 11-18. Their purpose is to offer pupils of all abilities in urban areas across England the opportunity to study successfully a curriculum geared, with the help of private sector sponsors, towards the world of work.

Class sizes
The Government's policy to reduce infant class sizes is a central part of its drive to raise standards in schools.

Collective worship
All maintained schools should provide for collective worship and Religious Education (RE) for their pupils.

Collective worship policy
A model policy that schools can use as a template when devising a collective worship policy.

Common basic data set
A key part of the Information Management Strategy is to have agreed sets of essential information that are held electronically in all schools and LEAs, and can be transferred in a standard electronic format.
Common mental health problems

Common transfer file
All such schools are expected to have the capability to transfer and receive the defined items of pupil data electronically.

Communication Aids Project (CAP)
The Communication Aids Project (CAP) was established by the DfES, with £10m funding over the period 2001-04, and an additional ?0m to extend the project to March 2006. The CAP helps pupils to overcome significant communication problems by providing high technology communication aids to children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and disabilities.

Community involvement
The Government is addressing gaps in learning and introducing citizenship education into the National Curriculum.

Community use of school premises
Schools can provide a range of extended services and facilities for the benefit of pupils, parents, families and the wider community.
Compulsory school age
Parents of children of compulsory schools age (5 to 16) are required to ensure that they receive a suitable education by regular attendance at school or otherwise.

Connexions service
Connexions is the Government's front line support service for all young people aged 13-19. It is now live across 47 partnership areas of England, whose boundaries match local Learning and Skills Council (LSC) boundaries. The service went live in phases across England between April 2001 and April 2003.

Consistent financial reporting
Consistent Financial Reporting (CFR) standardises, simplifies and streamlines the reporting of school finances in all maintained schools in England. The aim of CFR is to populate a website with a bank of benchmarked data, giving all maintained schools the opportunity to compare their incomes and expenditures with those of similar schools.

Continuing Professional Development CPD
CPD includes any activity that increases teachers' knowledge or understanding, and their effectiveness in schools.

Copyright
Copyright is one of several Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). Other examples include patents and trademarks. Intellectual Property (IP) is the results of intellectual effort or creativity.

Creativity in schools
The revised national curriculum offers teachers more flexibility in the delivery of the curriculum with more opportunities for pupils to explore their creative potential.

Criminal Records Bureau (CRB)
The Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) aims to help employers make safer recruitment decisions by identifying candidates who may be unsuitable for certain types of work, through a service called Disclosure.

Cycling for the school journey
The Government is keen to encourage walking and cycling for the school journey, to promote healthy lifestyles and to reduce the dangers of traffic congestion at the start and end of the school day.


Dance and Drama awards (DaDas)
The Dance and Drama Awards (DaDAs) are scholarships funded by the DfES. There are 525 new awards each year for students who wish to train at 22 private performing arts institutions in England.

Data processing and sharing: DCSF guidance to the law
This guidance explains the legal framework that applies to the use of personal data, in particular the circumstances in which bodies may share or disclose the data to third parties. It includes a suggested text for a Fair Processing Notice. You should note the Department's disclaimer and
should seek legal advice from your own legal adviser.

Design and Technology (D&T) in schools
Following the recent 14-19: opportunity and excellence consultation, the DfES intends that Design and Technology (D&T) will become an entitlement and not compulsory at Key Stage 4 (ages 14-16) from September 2004.

Detention
Head teachers have the right to detain pupils at the end of a school session on disciplinary grounds.

Disability discrimination
Under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 employers, including LEAs and governing bodies, must not discriminate against disabled people applying for jobs, or against existing disabled staff.

Disapplying the national curriculum
Although there is considerable scope for flexibility within the national curriculum쟣ramework, there are circumstances in which disapplication of part or even all may be appropriate.

Drugs education
Good drugs education should teach young people about the dangers and harmful effects of drugs so that they are encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle and achieve their full potential in society.
Drug, alcohol and tobacco education is a statutory part of the National Curriculum Science Order at key stages 1 to 4. It is best supported as part of a wider personal, social and health education (PSHE) and citizenship programme.


Early years and childcare
The former Sure Start and Early Years and Childcare Units of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) have been combined into a single interdepartmental Unit, the Sure Start Unit, accountable for delivery to both the Department for Education and Skills and the Department for Work and Pensions

Education action forum
The Action Forum is the Education Action Zone's managing group.

Education action zones
Education Action Zones allow local partnerships to develop new and imaginative approaches to raising standards in disadvantaged urban and rural areas.

Education Development Plans (EDPs)
Education Development Plans (EDPs) are key plans produced by each local education authority (LEA) setting out its strategies for improving standards in schools and raising pupil attainment. The plans are produced in accordance with guidance from the Secretary of State for Education and Skills, and submitted to the Secretary of State for approval.

Education improvement partnerships
Education Improvement Partnerships (EIPs) are one of the key eight reforms in the DfES' Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners. EIPs enable groups of schools to work together to raise standards and take on wider responsibilities for the children and young people in their local community.

Education maintenance allowance
The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) will be available nationally across England from September 2004 to eligible young people on courses such as AS/A2, GNVQs, NVQs, GCSEs studying in schools, sixth form colleges and FE colleges.

Education welfare service
Under Education Law parents are responsible for ensuring that their registered children of compulsory school age (5 to 16) attend school regularly.

Educational psychologists
The role of Educational Psychologists (EPs) in statutory assessment is well known but they also have an important role in early identification and intervention.

Educational visits
Information about health and safety on educational visits.

Emails to schools from the DCSF
Email alerts to the latest news and publications from the DfES are now available. The emails include brief summaries and contain links to the information source. The publications are available on TeacherNet’s Online Publications for schools service, where full summaries are provided.

Emergency planning
Emergency planning establishes procedures for dealing with emergencies confidently should they arise. TeacherNet has devised guidelines which cover planning, types of incidents and online tools to support your school’s emergency plan.

Environmental regulations

Ethnic minority pupils
The Government is wholly committed to promoting equality of opportunity in our schools and closing the educational achievement gap that exists between some groups of minority ethnic pupils and their peers.

Ethnic monitoring
Information about pupils' ethnic group allows for better observation of the performance of different groups, consideration of possible explanations for any disparity in achievement and planning of strategies for action.

European and international links
Many opportunities exist for schools and educationalists to interact and exchange information, people and ideas with other countries.

European legislation
Articles 149 and 150 of the Treaty establishing the European Community make clear that it is for individual countries to organise their education systems and determine the content of teaching as they see fit at a national level.

Example policies
A list of policies provided by the DfES which schools may use as templates when creating or reviewing their policies.

Excellence clusters
Excellence Clusters are designed to bring the benefits of Excellence in Cities (EiC) to small pockets of deprivation. Some 397 secondary schools and over 280 primary schools are involved in Excellence Clusters. Like EiC, the clusters focus on some of the most deprived areas of the country, using a structured programme designed to raise standards.

Excellence in cities
Excellence in Cities (EiC) is designed to remedy successive failures and to address the educational problems of the major cities where standards have been low.

Exclusion
In 1996-97 permanent exclusions were at a peak of 12,700, a threefold increase between the early and mid 1990s.
The Social Exclusion Unit published a report on truancy and exclusion and set Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets on truancy, exclusion and provision of suitable educational provision for excluded pupils. These were subsequently adopted in the White Paper.

Extended services
Schools can provide a range of extended services and facilities for the benefit of pupils, parents, families and the wider community.


Fair funding
Fair Funding is the non-statutory term commonly used to describe the system used by LEAs to allocate funding for primary and secondary education, including the allocation of school budget shares.

Fair Processing Notices (FPN) for pupils and school workforce - background and links to suggested texts and cover notes
Word versions of a cover note setting out changes in the FPN guidance for 2006-07, as well as a suggested text for local authorities and maintained schools, and one for City Technology Colleges, Academies and Non-maintained Special Schools.

Financial benchmarking
Benchmarking is the term given to the process of measuring standards of actual performance against those achieved by others with broadly similar characteristics.

Financial benchmarking
Financial benchmarking in schools is about more than just effectively managing the budget. It is about achieving Best value, the Government policy designed to further continuous improvement in locally provided services, including education.

Fitness to teach
Teachers and those training to become teachers need a sufficient standard of health and physical fitness to enter or remain in the teaching profession. Teaching is a demanding yet rewarding career and teachers have a duty of care for the pupils in their charge.

Flexibility in the national curriculum
Head teachers have considerable scope to develop their own curriculum within and around the national curriculum framework.

Foreign language assistants
The FLA scheme offers an invaluable resource for the promotion and support of language teaching and learning and FLAs can contribute greatly to all aspects of a language department's work by providing authentic native language support.

Foundation stage profile
The Foundation Stage Profile is a national scheme to enable teachers to record observations and summarise children’s achievements at the end of the foundation stage. It is used to summarise the achievements of children towards the Early Learning Goals (ELGs) within the foundation stage.

Freedom of information for schools
The Freedom of Information (FoI) Act requires all public authorities, including all maintained schools, to set out in an approved ‘publication scheme’ what information they hold and where and how the information can be accessed by an interested individual.

Fruit in schools
The National School Fruit Scheme is a Department of Health led initiative, which will entitle 4 to 6 year olds and 3 year olds registered at schools, with a free piece of fruit every day.

Funding
Funding schools is a shared responsibility between Central Government and Local Authorities. It is for schools and LEAs, individually and through Schools Forums, to work together to make sure that spending is best targeted, and matches income.


Gap year policy
For many young people the idea of taking a year out between school and university is an attractive one.

GCSE examinations
The governing bodies of schools are required by section 402 of the Education Act 1996 to enter pupils for prescribed public examinations, such as GCSEs, for which they have been prepared by the school.

General Teaching Council
The General Teaching Council (GTC), launched in September 2000, is the new independent professional body for teachers.

Geography
Geography is a statutory national curriculum subject, studied by all pupils between the ages of 5 and 14.

Gifted and talented children
In September?001, an intensive gifted and talented programme was launched in over 1000 secondary schools, 400 primary schools and in post-16 institutions across some 70 LEAs.

Governor training
Governor training, advice and support is available from local education authorities, diocesan boards as well as some independent providers.

Governors' annual report
The Education Bill 2005 has removed the requirement for governing bodies to produce a Governors' Annual Report. The Governors' Annual Report has been replaced with the School Profile.

Grammar school ballots
The Government made clear before the election that they do not support academic selection via the 11-plus exam and do not wish to see it extended.

Grants for schools
There are a large number of potential sources of funding which head teachers (or a designated member of the senior management team or bursar) can research depending upon their own needs, interests and existing contacts.

Gridclub
GridClub is a safe free online community designed solely for membership of 7 to 11 year old children, with over 500 activities aimed at complementing classroom teaching and learning at KS2.

Gypsy and traveller children
Gypsy and Traveller children should be given the same opportunities as all other children to benefit from schools.


Health and safety
The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 places a duty on employers to do all that is reasonably practicable to ensure the health and safety and welfare of their employees and the health and safety of non-employees affected by the undertakings of the employer.

Health and safety on educational visits
Information about health and safety on educational visits.

HIV and AIDS
Children with HIV or AIDS should be allowed to attend school. HIV infection or AIDS should not be a factor taken into account by local education authorities, governing bodies and head teachers in discharging either their various duties concerning school admissions, transfers and attendance, or their powers of exclusion from school.

Home to school travel
The DCSF, in partnership with the Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DFT) and the Department of Health, is encouraging safe, healthy and sustainable school travel.

Home-school agreements
All maintained schools and city technology colleges are required to adopt a home-school agreement.

Homework
Learning at home is an essential part of good education.

Homophobia
Further information is available on TeacherNet's Homophobia and sexual orientation in schools pages.


ICT and teacher training
Training in basic ICT skills is an important stage in the development of teachers’ ICT capability.

ICT procurement advisory service
The pilot of the ICT Independent Procurement Advisory Service (IPAS) was announced at BETT 2001 in the Minister’s speech and Becta has been commissioned to manage the service.

Increased flexibility for 14-16-year-olds programme
The programme seeks to create enhanced vocational and work related learning opportunities for 14-16 year olds who can benefit most - including provision of the new GCSEs in vocational subjects.

Independent schools registration
The standards for independent schools are set out in the Education Act 2002, which provides a regulatory framework for the registration and monitoring of all independent schools.

Independent/State School Partnership scheme
The Government is encouraging independent and state schools to work together to raise standards, widen educational opportunities, share best practice and create a climate of social inclusion.

Individual Education Plan (IEP)
An Individual Education Plan (IEP) builds on the curriculum that a child with learning difficulties is following and is designed to meet each child's identified needs.

Induction of newly qualified teachers (NQTs)
Teachers who obtain Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) after 7 May 1999 must successfully complete an induction period of three school terms (or equivalent) in order to remain eligible for employment as a teacher in maintained schools and non maintained special schools.

Information Management Strategy (IMS)
DfES's Information Management Strategy (IMS) was developed with the help of schools and LEAs to aid leadership teams, teachers and support teams in their efforts to raise standards in the classroom.

Insurance
The funding of insurance for maintained schools is currently governed by Regulations under the School Standards and Framework Act 1998.
LEAs can retain funding centrally for insurance within their Local Schools Budget. They may delegate resources for insurance to all or some schools. Schools can still request to have insurance funding delegated to it on an individual basis.

Internet safety
The DfES's Superhighway Safety website provides guidance on the wide range of measures that schools can adopt to protect their students when they are using computers.

Investors in people
Investors in People (IiP) helps schools to manage everything they must do and everything they choose to do.


Joint school and college ventures
In response to the 14-19 agenda a number schools and colleges have been developing proposals for new ways of cross sector working, some involving jointly run facilities that require capital investment.


LA funding
Information about LA funding is available from TeacherNet's School funding area.

LA inspections
Ofsted is responsible for the management of LA inspections, which take place under section 38 of the Education Act 1997.

LA intervention
For specific queries about LA intervention, please contact the LA Intervention Policy Development and Finance team at the Department for Education and Skills, tel: 020 7925 5943.

Language assistants
The FLA scheme offers an invaluable resource for the promotion and support of language teaching and learning and FLAs can contribute greatly to all aspects of a language department's work by providing authentic native language support.

Languages strategy
The document Languages for All: Languages for Life – A Strategy for England was published in December 2002. The Strategy contains three overarching objectives whaich are to improve the teaching and learning of languages, to introduce a new voluntary recognition system and to increase the number of people studying languages

Leading Edge Partnership (LEP) programme
The aim of the Leading Edge Partnership (LEP)programme is to identify, extend and disseminate innovation and excellence in order to contribute to system-wide improvement.

Learning and skills council
The LSC is a non-departmental public body, established under the Learning and Skills Act 2000. Its function is to plan and fund post-16 learning in England, including school sixth-form provision, FE, work-based training, and adult and community learning.

Legal guidance on data processing and sharing
This guidance explains the legal framework that applies to the use of personal data, in particular the circumstances in which bodies may share or disclose the data to third parties. It includes a suggested text for a Fair Processing Notice. You should note the Department's disclaimer and
should seek legal advice from your own legal adviser.

Length of school day/year
Schools must open for 380 half-day sessions (190 days) in each school year, beginning with the first term to start after July.

Lifelong learning
Lifelong learning is one of the keys to prosperity for individuals, businesses and the nation.

Literacy
The National Literacy Strategy has two main aims: to improve the teaching of literacy in the classroom and to improve the management of literacy at school level.


Management Essentials
The Management Essentials area in TeacherNet's Online Publications for schools gives a summary of the most important information and documents listed in Spectrum.

Meals and milk
The duty to provide free meals to eligible pupils, paid lunches where parents request them, and to comply with national nutritional standards, rests with the Local Education Authority (LEA). Where a school’s budget share includes an amount in respect of meals and other refreshments this duty rests with the school’s governing body.

Media and PR advice
When dealing with the media, schools need to adhere to certain rules and guidelines. This will protect them from bad press and false representation, as opposed to good press that will raise their reputation in the community and keep them known as an interested and interesting local school.

Mental health
A recent ONS survey showed that very large numbers of children suffer from mental health problems. A positive school experience can make a real difference to the long-term outcomes for children who are experiencing or at risk of experiencing mental health problems.

Mentoring
Mentoring initiatives can make a significant contribution to the overall strategies of support available to individuals in education.

Mobile phones and base stations
A report into mobile phones and health, in May 2000, recommended that a specific precautionary approach should be adopted until much more detailed and scientifically robust information on any health effects becomes available.

Model policies
A list of policies provided by the DfES which schools may use as templates when creating or reviewing their policies.

Multi-cultural education
The Government is wholly committed to ensuring that pupils from ethnic or religious minorities have the same opportunity as all others to benefit from what schools can offer them.

Museums and galleries
A £2.5 million programme aimed at developing the educational role of museums and art galleries over a period of three years was launched in July 1999.

Music and dance
The Government's Music and Dance Scheme (MDS – previously the Music and Ballet Scheme) provides means-tested aided places for over 800 boys and girls with outstanding talent in music or dance.


National curriculum
The National Curriculum secures for all pupils an entitlement to a number of areas of learning and to develop knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes necessary for their self-fulfilment and development as active and responsible citizens.

National curriculum - disapplication
Although there is considerable scope for flexibility within the national curriculum framework, there are circumstances in which disapplication of part or even all may be appropriate.

National curriculum - flexibility
Head teachers have considerable scope to develop their own curriculum within and around the national curriculum framework.

National curriculum - time spent teaching
Schools have considerable flexibility in how they develop their curriculum from the statutory requirements, for instance, in how much time is allocated to each curriculum area and whether subjects should be taught discretely. The time spent on each subject is for the school to decide and they can organise their timetable to reflect the school’s individual needs, strengths and values.

National Data 2005
National 2005 data, previously known as the Autumn Package is available via the Standards website.

National Healthy Schools Standard (NHSS)
The NHSS is the mainstay of the healthy schools programme and was introduced in 1999 as a vehicle to support delivery of Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE).

National languages strategy
The document Languages for All: Languages for Life – A Strategy for England was published in December 2002. The Strategy contains three overarching objectives whaich are to improve the teaching and learning of languages, to introduce a new voluntary recognition system and to increase the number of people studying languages

Net capacity assessment
The capacity of a school is the number of pupil places available. The net capacity is intended to provide a single, robust and consistent method of assessing the capacity of schools.

Numeracy
The National Numeracy Strategy has two main aims: to improve the teaching of mathematics in the classroom and to improve the management of numeracy at school level.

Nutrition
See Nutritional standards under the Meals and milk topic.


Occupational health guidance
New guidance on occupational health in the workplace for teachers has been produced.

Ofsted: LA profiles
LEA Profiles are produced by OFSTED to bring together, in convenient form, key information held by OFSTED and DfES about each LEA and its schools.

Ofsted: Performance and Assessment (PANDA) reports
Performance and Assessment (PANDA) Reports are produced by Ofsted.?They are an integral part of the Autumn Package of Pupil Performance Information, which is produced jointly by DfES, Ofsted and QCA and published by DfES.

Out of school hours
Study support is broadly defined as activity outside normal lesson time in which young people participate voluntarily. Activities can include homework, study and breakfast clubs; sports and outdoor activities; the creative arts; mentoring; opportunities to pursue particular interests such as languages or ICT and developing study skills. Its purpose is to improve young people's motivation, build their self-esteem and help them to become more effective learners. Above all, it aims to raise achievement.

Overseas pupils
Admission authorities may receive an application from parents overseas for a school place for a child who is not yet resident in the UK.


Parent Governor Representatives (PGRs)
Parent Governor Representatives (PGRs) are elected by other parent governors to provide a voice for all parents in their local area.

Parental involvement
Every 'parent' (as defined in education law) has a right to particpate in decisions about their child's education.

Parental responsibility
This guidance defines the conditions of parental responsibility and outlines best practice in cases of conflict or dispute.

Pay - teachers
The School Teachers' Review Body (STRB) reports on pay and conditions of school teachers in England and Wales.

PE and school sport
Physical education (PE) and school sport is an essential part of a broad and balanced curriculum and it is vital that this should be a positive and enjoyable experience for all young people. The teaching of PE in the National Curriculum is statutory at Key Stages 1 to 4 (age 5 to 16).

Pensions
The Teachers' Pensions Scheme is open to all full-time and part-time teachers.
Performance management
The Education (School Teacher Appraisal) Regulations 1991 will be replaced by the Education (School Teacher Appraisal) (England) Regulations 2000 on 1 September 2000, subject to parliamentary approval.

Performance tables
Performance tables dating back to 1994 are available from the Schools Performance Tables Website.

Permanently excluded children
In 1996-97 permanent exclusions were at a peak of 12,700, a threefold increase between the early and mid 1990s.
The Social Exclusion Unit published a report on truancy and exclusion and set Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets on truancy, exclusion and provision of suitable educational provision for excluded pupils. These were subsequently adopted in the White Paper.

Personal financial capability
The Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) framework provides for personal finance education to be taught throughout the school curriculum.

Personal Social and Health Education PSHE
PSHE provides a vital foundation for the personal development of young people in preparing them for adult life.

Personalised learning
Personalised learning is about tailoring education to individual need, interest and aptitude to ensure that every pupil achieves and reaches the highest standards possible.

Playing fields
Playing fields are protected under the School Standards and Framework Act 1998, which empowers the Secretary of State to protect school playing fields in England from disposal or change of use.

Playing for success
Playing for Success-s part of a package of measures to increase out of school hours provision, contributing to the wider raising standards agenda.

Political bias
LEAs, governing bodies and head teachers of all maintained schools must ensure that teachers do not promote one-sided political views when teaching any subject.

Polling stations - use of schools as
Returning Officers have the right to select schools as venues for polling stations.

Positive activities for young people (PAYP)
Positive Activities Young People (PAYP) was officially launched by Estelle Morris MP (Minister for the Arts) on Tuesday 15 July 2003.
This new programme aims to provide developmental and diversionary activities for 8-19 year olds from 2003 to 2006. PAYP builds upon Connexions Summer Plus, Splash, Splash Extra and Community Cohesion.

Post-16 funding
The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) is responsible for funding and planning education and training for over 16-year-olds in England, outside of higher education. This includes school sixth form funding.

Post-16 qualifications
In September 2000 the most significant changes to post-16 curriculum for 50 years were introduced.

Pre-appointment checks on staff

Primary strategy
On 20 May 2003 the Secretary of State for Education and Skills, Charles Clarke, launched the new strategy for primary education - Excellence and Enjoyment: A strategy for primary schools.

Professional development placements
Professional development placements offer opportunities for teachers to undertake placements with the aim of gaining practical experience of business and an understanding of employer needs.

Prospectus
Governing bodies of maintained schools must publish a school prospectus.

Public Private Partnership (PPP)
Public Private Partnership (PPP) is a term used to cover a wide range of activities in which the public and private sectors work together to improve services.

Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets
Delivering better public services does not only depend on how much money the Government spends. Equally important is how well the Government spends it. Public Service Agreements (PSAs) set out what Departments aim to deliver in return for the investment being made. They provide a clear statement of priorities and are an integral part of the government’s spending plans.

Publications - email alert
Email alerts to the latest news and publications from the DfES are now available. The emails include brief summaries and contain links to the information source. The publications are available on TeacherNet’s Online Publications for schools service, where full summaries are provided.

Pupil Achivement Tracker (PAT)
National 2005 data, previously known as the Autumn Package is available via the Standards website.

Pupil level annual school census (PLASC)
Every school is required to supply information to the DfES each January through the Annual Schools Census (ASC), formerly known as “Form 7”.

Pupil records
The governing body is responsible for a pupil's educational record being made available for their parent to see, free of charge, within fifteen school days of receipt of the parent's written request.

Pupil reports
By law head teachers of maintained schools are responsible for ensuring that they send an annual report to parents on their children’s achievements.

Purchasing guide
Making best use of the school budgets to maximise impact on the raising of eductional standards is a key responsibility for all school governors and managers.


Raising achievement
The revised national curriculum requires schools to focus teaching and learning on their pupils’ needs and to take account of gender, ethnicity and social class.

Reducing bureaucracy
Cutting unnecessary burdens on teachers is a priority issue.

Refugee and asylum seekers' children
It is Government policy that asylum seeker and refugee children are given the same opportunities as all other children to benefit from schools.

Religious Education (RE)
All maintained schools should provide Religious Education (RE) and collective worship for their pupils. The precise nature of that RE at a foundation or voluntary school will depend on the religious character of the school.

Religious Education - collective worship and the right to withdraw
Parents have a right to withdraw their children from Religious Education (RE) and collective worship. If a parent asks for their child to be wholly or partly excused from attending any RE or collective worship at the school the school must comply unless the request is withdrawn.

Remodelling - support staff
On 15 January 2003, Ministers signed a national agreement with key partners including the local authority employers and school workforce unions. Key features of the agreement include contractual changes for teachers to bring about a progressive reduction in teachers' overall hours, a concerted attack on unnecessary paperwork and bureaucratic processes, additional resources and a national 'change management' programme, and reform of support staff roles.

Remodelling - teaching assistants

Restraining pupils - use of force
All schools should have a policy on the use of force to control or restrain pupils.

Retirement on grounds of ill health
The procedures for applying for ill-health retirement have changed with effect from 1 January 2004. The new arrangements require employers’ involvement in the processing of ill health retirement applications

Returners to teaching
In March 2001 the Government announced incentives to attract qualified teachers back into the classroom after a career break.

Risk management
Risk management strategies involve the identification of risks and actions to remove or limit its impact on the school. Effective risk management delivers value for money by ensuring better use of resources; thereby reducing the costs of avoidable losses and reducing insurance premiums.

Role of local authorities in education, children and young people's services
The Government's recent paper, The Role of the Local Education Authority in School Education, clearly sets out the LEA role and also proposes new ways of providing key services to schools.


Safety education
Safety education guidance for head teachers, teachers and school governors was issued by the DfES in 2002. It has been designed to provide authoritative guidance for safety education as part of the Personal Social and Health Education (PSHE) framework which includes the theme of developing a safe, healthy lifestyle.

Schemes of work
Schemes of work covering Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 of the revised national curriculum have been designed by panels of subject specialists from the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority?QCA) and practising teachers.

School accounts
Schools are not obliged to publish accounts as such. They are, however, required to produce a financial statement as part of the governor’s report discussed at the annual meeting.

School achievement awards scheme
The School Achievement Awards Scheme is now closed.
The scheme was originally developed to celebrate the achievements of schools that have either made significant improvement or are high performing.

School Building Capital (SBC)
The Government has put a high priority on increased investment in school buildings.

School companies
Under the Education Act 2002, groups of schools can form companies to purchase collectively their normal goods and services or sell their expertise to other schools. This power is optional, and schools need only use it if they feel that a joint identity with other schools will facilitate collective activity.

School funding
Funding schools is a shared responsibility between Central Government and Local Authorities. It is for schools and LEAs, individually and through Schools Forums, to work together to make sure that spending is best targeted, and matches income.

School holiday dates
The Department does not control the length and timing of school holidays in Scotland and Wales; the Scottish Office and the Welsh Office make that decision.

School leaving date
A person is of compulsory school age when they attain the age of 5 and cease to be of compulsory school age on the last Friday in June in the school year in which they reach age 16.

School libraries
School libraries are a key resource for pupils.

School lunch
The duty to provide free meals to eligible pupils, paid lunches where parents request them, and to comply with national nutritional standards, rests with the Local Education Authority (LEA). Where a school’s budget share includes an amount in respect of meals and other refreshments this duty rests with the school’s governing body.

School Profile
The Education Bill 2005 has removed the requirement for governing bodies to produce a Governors' Annual Report. The Governors' Annual Report has been replaced with the School Profile.

School prospectus
Governing bodies of maintained schools must publish a school prospectus.

School sixth form funding
The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) funds school sixth forms via LEAs.

School trips
Information about health and safety on educational visits.

School uniform
There is no legislation that deals specifically with the wearing of school uniform. It is for the governing body to decide whether there should be a school uniform and, if there is, what it should consist of.

School websites
Before setting up a website, schools need to consider the objectives for doing so, its purpose, the audience to be addressed, and how to protect their students, such as not revealing their identities and pictures etc.

Self evaluation
Rigorous self-evaluation lies at the heart of well managed and effective school improvement.

Sensory difficulties
There is a wide spectrum of sensory, multi-sensory and physical difficulties. Sex and relationship education
Governing bodies of maintained primary schools must decide whether Sex and Relationship Education should be included in their school's curriculum and, if so, what the educational provision should consist of and how it should be organised.

Special Educational Needs (SEN) policy
A pupil is defined as having Special Educational Needs (SEN) if he or she has a learning difficulty which requires special educational provision to be made for him or her.

Special educational needs and disability tribunal
It is a non-departmental public body which exists to resolve disputes between parents and LEAs with regard to SEN provision made for children. The amended (in 2001) Disability Discrimination Act 1995 Part IV extended the role of the Tribunal so that from September 2002 it has dealt with disability discrimination in schools and is now known as the Special Educational Needs and Disability Tribunal (SENDIST).

Special educational needs identification and assessment
Early identification, assessment and provision for any child who may have Special Educational needs (SEN) is crucial.

Specialist schools
The Specialist Schools Programme helps schools, in partnership with private sector sponsors and supported by additional Government funding, to establish distinctive identities through their chosen specialisms and achieve their targets to raise standards.

Speech and language therapy
Prime responsibility for the provision of Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) services to children has rested with the NHS since 1974.

Staff recruitment

Standards fund
The Standards Fund is a programme of specific grants which enables schools and LEAs to achieve improvements in education standards set out in targets agreed between them. It includes such programmes as the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and Excellence in Cities, as well as support for devolved capital spending by schools.

Statements of special educational needs
When referring a pupil for statutory assessment, written information should be submitted by the head teacher or Special Educational Needs Co-rdinator (SENCO).

Study support
Study support is broadly defined as activity outside normal lesson time in which young people participate voluntarily. Activities can include homework, study and breakfast clubs; sports and outdoor activities; the creative arts; mentoring; opportunities to pursue particular interests such as languages or ICT and developing study skills. Its purpose is to improve young people's motivation, build their self-esteem and help them to become more effective learners. Above all, it aims to raise achievement.

Supply teachers
The Government is taking steps to raise the status and quality of supply teaching.

Support staff
On 15 January 2003, Ministers signed a national agreement with key partners including the local authority employers and school workforce unions. Key features of the agreement include contractual changes for teachers to bring about a progressive reduction in teachers' overall hours, a concerted attack on unnecessary paperwork and bureaucratic processes, additional resources and a national 'change management' programme, and reform of support staff roles.

Sure start
Sure Start is part of the Government's drive to eradicate child poverty in 20 years and to halve it in 10.

Sustainable development
A sustainable development strategy for schools is being rolled out by the DfES in gradual stages over 2003/2004.


Target setting
Governing bodies of all maintained primary and secondary schools, including special schools (except special schools in hospitals), must set targets each autumn for improving pupil performance.

Taught time
Schools have considerable flexibility in how they develop their curriculum from the statutory requirements, for instance, in how much time is allocated to each curriculum area and whether subjects should be taught discretely. The time spent on each subject is for the school to decide and they can organise their timetable to reflect the school’s individual needs, strengths and values.

Teacher recruitment
Individual schools and governing bodies are responsible for recruiting and retaining their staff, and hold most of the budgets.

Teachers' International Development Programme (TIPD)
Launched in 2000 the TIPD programme enables teachers to experience international educational systems by participating in visits to overseas schools to study themes of relevance to the curriculum.

Teachers' pay
The School Teachers' Review Body (STRB) reports on pay and conditions of school teachers in England and Wales.

Teaching assistants
There is a wide variety of terminology used to describe adults who work in classrooms alongside teachers in schools. The term teaching assistant is an umbrella term the DfES uses to include classroom assistants, learning support assistants and others whose primary role is to assist the teacher in the classroom.

Teaching timetable
Schools have considerable flexibility in how they develop their curriculum from the statutory requirements, for instance, in how much time is allocated to each curriculum area and whether subjects should be taught discretely. The time spent on each subject is for the school to decide and they can organise their timetable to reflect the school’s individual needs, strengths and values.

Term dates
The Department does not control the length and timing of school holidays in Scotland and Wales; the Scottish Office and the Welsh Office make that decision.

Threshold assessment
Threshold assessment provides good teachers with an opportunity to apply for a consolidated pay increase of ?076 and access more pay.

Training & Development Agency (TDA)
The Training & Development Agency (TDA) was set up by the Education Act 2005.

Training schools
Training schools were established to improve standards in initial teacher training as outlined in the Government's Green Paper, Teachers - Meeting the Challenge of Change.

Trespassers
Schools are not public places to which any member of the public is entitled to have access.


Uniform
There is no legislation that deals specifically with the wearing of school uniform. It is for the governing body to decide whether there should be a school uniform and, if there is, what it should consist of.

Unions
Unions and associations can be useful sources of information and advice for members.


Value added
Value added shows the progress made by an individual or a group compared with the average progress made by similar pupils nationally between Key Stages, i.e. the relative progress they have made.

Value for money
The Schools Standards and Framework Act 1998 has made changes to the ways in which schools are funded so that a greater proportion of funding is devolved to schools for them to spend.

Volunteering
If young people are to get the maximum benefit from their years at school, then the support that volunteers provide in supporting teachers, administration of the school and helping young people with particular needs is vital.


Work experience
Work experience is an important part of a young person's education.

Working with business
How working with businesses can help raise standards in schools.


Young carers
In 1996, it was estimated that there were 51,000 young carers in the UK, but estimates from a study from the Children Society released in May 2003 suggest that this may be as high as 149,000.