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OECD 교육지표상의 영국의 위치

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주영한국교육원
Date
01:42 11 Sep 2008
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2152
< OECD 교육지표상의 영국의 위치 >

□ OECD 보고서 국제 교육지표 발표 : 총 29개 국가 중 영국의 경우
- 16세 이상자의 학교 교육 수학 비율 : 멕시코, 터키와 함께 최하위권

- GCSE 5과목에서 우수한 등급을 받은 것과 동등한 성적을 획득한 25세에서 34세의 비율 21위

- 55세에서 64세 인구 중 후기중등교육을 이수한 비율 13위
cf. 한국은 23위에서 1위로 급상승
- “영국도 발전하였으나 세계는 더 빨리 변하고 있다” : OECD 교육 위원회 분석 대표 Andreas Schleicher

□ 영국 교육 지표의 특징
▪ 유아의 높은 학습 참여율
- “영국은 3-4세 어린이의 학습 참여율이 가장 높은 나라이다” : OECD 교육 지침 보고서 'Education At A Glance'
- 이유 : 정부에서 진행한 ‘초등학교 입학 전 프로그램’에 의해 1998년 절반가량이었던 3-4세 어린이 학습률이 2006년 10명당 9명꼴로 상승
cf. OECD 평균 10명당 7명꼴

▪ 국제 평균 이상의 교육부분 예산 투입
- 초등학생의 교육에 추가 교육비 지출 : 영국 7세 아동은 OECD 평균(796시간)에 비하여 1년 기준 100시간 이상(890시간)을 교실에서 보냄

▪ 초등학교 학급당 학생 수 상당히 많은 편
- 초등학교 학급당 학생수 : 조사대상 14개국 평균 21.6명, 영국 평균 24.5명
- 일본, 한국, 터키에 이어 학급당 학생 수가 많음
- 중등학교 학급당 학생 수는 조사 평균에 비해 낮음
- 높은 교육비 지출과 학급 크기는 교육 시간이 다른 나라에 비하여 긴 것을 설명함

▪ 상대적으로 낮은 대학진학율
- 대학진학 비율 : OECD 국가 평균 1995년 37%, 2008년 57%. 8백만 명의 학생 증가
- 영국 대학진학 비율 : 1995년 4위에서 2008년 12위로 하락. 중퇴 비율도 상대적으로 높음
- 대졸자와 대학진학을 하지 않은 직장인의 임금 차이 큼 : 영국 대졸자 14%가 고등교육지출비를 상쇄하며 이는 19개 국가 중 5위에 해당함
- 많은 국가에서 대학 학위에 대한 요구에 부합하기 위해 교육 시스템에 대한 투자가 진행되고 있으나 증가하는 학생 수를 따라가지 못하고 있음
- 고령화 사회의 요구에 교육이 뒤처지는 상황이 발생할 가능성

□ 영국의 학급당 학생수에 대한 의견
- OECD 평균 이상의 학급당 학생수에 대한 비난(Civitas,우파 싱크탱크)
- 가족부 대표 Anastasia de Waal의 주장 : 정부는 유아 학급 크기를 줄이는 프로그램을 임시방편이 아닌 체계적으로 진행해야 함
- 학교가족어린이부 대변인의 주장 : 정부 정책에 의해 지난 10년간 학급의 크기는 점차적으로 줄어 왔고, 교사수도 15만 명 이상이 증가함. 1997년 교사 한 명당 17명이었던 학생수가 현재 12명으로 감소


Britain fares poorly in international schools league table

- The Times, 9 September 2008

British children start education younger and have a longer school day than most foreign pupils, an international league table published today indicates.

Yet the United Kingdom comes almost bottom at keeping its teenagers in education beyond the age of 16, with only Mexico, Turkey and Israel doing worse.

And comparatively few young British adults have achieved even a basic secondary education, according to the report by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

It found the UK was lagging behind, coming 21st out of 29 countries, when it analysed the ratio of 25 to 34-year-olds who had five good GCSEs or equivalent.

This has pushed the UK’s ranking down the table as the population ages: the oldest measured generation (aged 55 to 64) came 13th of 29. Meanwhile Korea had gone from 23rd to first place, when its oldest and youngest generations were compared.

Andreas Schleicher, head of analysis for the OECD education directorate, said the UK had improved but that “the world has moved much faster”. He added: “[The number achieving] baseline qualifications is moving in the UK, but it’s something most other countries have managed.”

The report, Education At A Glance, said: “The UK is now among the countries with the highest participation rate in education of children aged 3 to 4.”

Labour has presided over a huge increase of children of this age in “pre-primary programmes”, from just over half in 1998 to nine out of 10 children in 2006. This compares with an OECD average of seven in 10 children. It also spends more than most other countries at this level.

The report found the UK spent above average on education, with private sources growing faster than public spending.

Some of that extra money was spent on keeping young primary-age children in school longer than their counterparts. English seven-year-olds endured 100 more hours than average in the classroom each year.

While the average country taught seven to eight-year-olds for 796 hours a year, in England this was 890 hours.

The report said: “The combination of both higher than average expenditure per student and class sizes, is in part explained by the high annual duration of instruction time.”

It said the UK had among the largest class sizes in primary schools, with only Japan, Korea and Turkey having more children in lessons.

The report added: “In 14 countries there are 20 or fewer students per primary-level class. The OECD average is 21.5. The UK has an average 24.5 students per class.”

However class sizes at secondary level were lower than average.

The report said the pace of expansion in education - particularly at university level - was outstripping past projections and was expected to continue.

It had risen by nearly half in 10 years. While 37 per cent of teenagers in OECD countries went to university in 1995, that has risen to 57 per cent. This equates to eight million more students.

The UK boasts an above-average graduation rate, the report said, but has dropped from fourth to 12th since 1995 and is “likely to be surpassed” by other countries. Its drop-out rate from degree courses is also relatively high.

Mr Schleicher said the UK had recently devoted more of its GDP to education than any other country, and had one of the largest differences in salaries between graduates and non-graduates.

Graduates in the UK saw a 14 per cent return on the “investment” they had made in higher education (worked out by comparing the amount they had spent going to university with their salaries) - the fifth best rate out of 19 countries.

Many other countries were facing “tough decisions on funding and quality standards to ensure their education systems respond adequately to booming demand for degrees.” Funding for higher education was “barely keeping up with increased student numbers,” the report said.

Mr Schleicher said education could lose out to competing demands in ageing societies.

Civitas, the right-wing think-tank, criticised the Government over the OECD’s class size figures.

Anastasia de Waal, head of family and education said: “The government must finally commit to a proper class size reduction programme for infant classes if it wants to see real results. Cutting corners rather than class size is a huge mistake.”

A spokesman for the Department for Children, Schools and Families said: “Over the past 10 years we have seen steadily smaller class sizes and a better adult-pupil ratio thanks to our policies which see 150,000 more adults in classrooms. In 1997 there were 17 pupils per adult at primary level, now there are 12.”