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교사에게 £10,000의 ‘황금 수갑’이 채워진다

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주영한국교육원
Date
19:03 21 Jan 2009
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4660
교사에게 £10,000의 ‘황금 수갑’이 채워진다
- 가난한 학교의 학력 향상을 위한 유인책 발표-


□ 영국 정부 ‘새로운 기회 백서(New Opportunities White paper)’ 발표
- 학생 빈부 격차에 따른 학력차를 줄이기 위한 교사 유인책 ‘황금수갑(gold handcuffs)' 포함
- 3년간 성취도가 낮은 학교에 근무하는 교사에게 임금 외 £10,000 지급
- 이는 런던 외각 지역의 신규교사 초봉인 £20,627의 절반, 교원 임금 평균인 £35,000의 1/3에 해당하는 액수임
- 이외에 추가 경력 개발 기회 제공, 관련 학교 간 네트워크 지원으로 정보 공유, ‘excellent teacher’ 및 ’advanced skills teacher’등의 우수교사 보직 학교당 2자리 확보, 교육 부문 새로운 석사 학위 개설 등의 추가 유인책 제공

□ 해당 학교 및 방법
- 500개 이상의 학교 및 매해 6,000개 이상의 교직
- 최소 30%의 학생이 무료급식(free school meals, FSM)을 받거나 GCSE에서 5과목 이상에서 우수 성적(C이상)을 받지 못한 학생이 30% 미만인 학교(National Challenge schools)
- 재정 지원: 정부 보조 절반, 학교 부담 절반으로 이루어짐

□ 관련 연구 내용
- 보수당의 연구 발표
* 부유한 학생들이 우수 중등학교를 독점하고, 가난한 학생들은 중산층 학생들보다 현격히 뒤처지는 것으로 나타남
* 절반이상의 학생이 무료급식을 받는 학교 학생의 GCSE 5과목이상(영어, 수학 포함) 우수성적을 받는 비율이 14%에서 13% 하락한 반면, 무료급식을 받는 학생 비율이 10%이하인 학교에서는 성적우수학생 비율이 57%에서 58%로 상승(2008년 조사 내용)
- Sutton Trust Charity의 연구 발표
* 정규 교육을 시작하기 이전에도 가난한 가정의 학생들의 인지능력이 중산층 학생들에 비해 덜 발달됨
* 3-5세 대상 취학 준비를 결정하는 인지도 평가 시험에서 부유 가정 학생 60%가 통과한 반면 가난한 학생의 32%만 통과
* Jane Waldfogel(Social Work and Public Affairs 학과 교수, Columbia University)는 조기 교육에서 충분한 투자만이 해결 방법임을 주장

□ 관련 전문가 의견
- ED Balls, 학교어린이가족부 장관 : 정부는 불이익과 학력 성취도 사이의 연결고리를 끊도록 더욱 노력할 것이다. 이에 대한 해결방법은 우수교사 확보이므로, 해당 유인책은 어려운 학교의 교장이 우수 교사 고용 및 유지가 가능하도록 도울 것이다.
- Michael Gove, 학교어린이가족부 재야 내각 장관 : 보수당은 저소득층 자녀들을 위한 자금을 확보를 제안 해왔다. 이 계획은 가난한 학생들이 재학 중인 학교에 새로운 운영방법 시행을 위한 추가 자원 및 자금 조달을 가능케 할 것이다.
- John Dunford, 학교와 대학 리더 연합 총장 : 정부의 지원은 교원 임금을 지급할 능력이 되지만 유인방법이 없었던 가난한 지역에 위치한 학교에 훌륭한 동기 부여가 될 것이다.

□ 새로운 기회 백서(New Opportunities White paper) 기본 내용
- 사회 이동성(social mobility), 공정성(fairness)에 초점을 맞춘 사회 분야별, 단계별 정부 보조안
- 중요 내용
* 유년 부문(Early years)
- 사회적으로 혜택 받지 못한 2세 아동을 위한 무료 보호시설 확충을 위해 £5700만 지원. 매년 영국 전역에 주당 10시간 이용 가능한 23,000개의 보호시설 설립
- 도움이 필요한 모든 임산부를 위한 전담 가족 간호사 확보
* 학교 부문
- £10,000의 ‘황금 수갑’ 제도로 도움이 절실한 학교에 교원 유치
* 취업 부문(Transition to work)
- 35,000명의 수습생/연수생 모집
- 가능성은 높으나 집안 사정으로 대학 진학이 힘든 학생 보조
* 경력 부문(Getting on in work)
- 빈부에 상관없이 학생이 전문 직종에 종사할 수 있도록 인력의 공정한 선발을 위한 패널 확보
* 가족 부문(Supporting families )
- 부모 및 보호자를 위한 £500의 재취업 연수금 보조


£10,000 ‘golden handcuffs’ for teachers
Incentive to boost achievement in deprived schools
-The Times, January 13, 2009

Teachers joining the most disadvantaged secondary schools are to receive “golden handcuff” payments of £10,000 in an attempt to narrow the achievement gap between rich and poor pupils.

The money is the equivalent of nearly half the starting salary of £20,627 of a newly qualified teacher outside London, and almost a third of the average teaching salary of about £35,000.

The £10,000 package will be available to more than 500 schools and will cover up to 6,000 new appointments a year.

Half the cost of the scheme will be met by the Government, and half by the school. The plan is one of several proposals to boost employment during the downturn, including government-backed “golden hellos” of £2,500 for employers who recruit and train the long-term unemployed. There will aso be an expansion of apprenticeships and internships.

Research from the Conservatives suggests that poorer teenagers appear to be falling farther behind their middle-class contemporaries as better-off families colonise the best state secondary schools.

The proportion of pupils achieving five good GCSE grades, including English and maths, in schools where more than half were eligible for free school meals fell from 14 to 13 per cent last year. At schools where fewer than a tenth of pupils were eligible, the proportion rose from 57 to 58 per cent.

Research by the Sutton Trust charity suggests that children from poorer homes have less well developed cognitive skills than middle-class children – even before they start school.

In a test measuring the cognitive skills of three to five-year-olds to determine their readiness for school, more than 60 per cent from the wealthiest fifth of homes passed, compared with only 32 per cent from the poorest fifth.

Jane Waldfogel, Professor of Social Work and Public Affairs at Columbia University, and the lead author of the research, said that the solution was greater investment in early years childcare.

Ed Balls, the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, said: “We will now do more to break the link between disadvantage and achievement. Great teachers are key to this, so I want to go further now to help heads recruit and retain the very best teachers in the most challenging schools. As well as the £10,000 payment for three years’ service, head teachers will be able to attract new teachers with access to extra professional development, a support network and access to the new masters [degree] in teaching and learning.”

Michael Gove, the Shadow Schools Secretary, said that his party had proposed an explicit pupil premium to increase per capita funding for pupils from deprived backgrounds. “Our plans would ensure that those schools which attracted a larger number of poorer children would have the additional resources to pioneer new ways of operating and the money to pay more for higher quality teaching,” he said.

John Dunford, general secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders, said that the money would be welcomed by schools in deprived areas, which often struggled to attract teachers, even though they had extra funding. “They do have quite a bit of funding to spend on staff, but the problem is that they can’t attract people to go there. We need to put in place incentives like this,” he said.


'Fairness' is basis of new opportunites white paper
Measures proposed include university assistance for poorer young people, more apprenticeships and free childcare expansion

-The Guardian, January 13, 2009

The government this morning unveiled its long-awaited white paper on social mobility, with a package of measures designed to help the most disadvantaged in society break out of poverty and capture the jobs traditionally occupied by the middle-classes.

The new opportunities white paper brings together measures across a range of departments looking at ways of supporting individuals "at key stages of their lives to make the most of their potential". The catchword of the document is "fairness", with an emphasis on narrowing the ghap between the rich and the poor and increasing opportunities for the least favoured social groups.

In a foreword, Gordon Brown said he wanted to see "a Britain where what counts is not where you come from but what you aspire to become, a Britain where everyone should be able to say that their destiny is not written for them, but by them". The proposals come as the government is faced with research indicating that social mobility has not increased since Labour came to power.

Among the measures proposed are:

• The creation of a £10,000 "golden handcuffs" bonus to keep the best teachers in the schools where they are most needed – a scheme designed to support 500 of the country's worst performing schools. As many as 6,000 teachers could potentially benefit as part of this drive to encourage some of the most effective teachers to apply for work in some of the most challenging schools. The money would be payable in return for three years' service in one of the listed schools;

• New assistance for "high potential" young people from low-income backgrounds to help them get into university. The white paper says "We will ensure that all children from low-income backgrounds with the potential to benefit from higher education will receive the mentoring, advice and support they need at secondary school to get into university";

• A volunteering scheme to help young people not in work, education or training get work experience, designed to help them get on a career ladder at a later stage when new jobs emerge. Any prolonged period outside education or the labour market is "particularly damaging to a young person's life chances", states the white paper;

• 35,000 new apprenticeship places so that all young people with the right qualifications will have the right to an apprenticeship;

• £57m to extend free childcare for disadvantaged two-year-olds – this will make 23,000 free places available each year, spread across England, providing 10 hours of care per week;

• A £500 back-to-work training bonus for parents and carers making the transition from full-time care into employment after five or more years of caring for someone;

• £15m to help tackle deprivation on Britain's worst estates;

• A panel to identify the key obstacles which prevent young people with disadvantaged backgrounds from getting into professions.

The government will review the way financial support is available for 16- to 18-year-olds is made available, and assess how benefits for 16- to 18-year-olds can best enable young people to participate in education and jobs with training. The research will be published by the end of 2009.