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Pupil Referral Unit (PRU)

20:10 23 Jul 2008
Pupil Referral Units : PRU

□ PRU란
- 일반학교 혹은 특수학교 교육에 적응하지 못하는 학생 교육센터
- 모든 지역교육청(LEA)은 모든 의무교육 대상자의 교육을 시킬 의무가 있음
- 특정 기간 동안 질병 혹은 퇴학으로 인하여 학교교육을 받을 수 없는 학생들의 교육이 PRU를 통하여 이루어짐
- 2007년 현재 England 지역에 448개의 PRU에서 15,160명이 교육을 받고 있음
- 법적으로 학교의 한 유형이며 Ofsted의 평가를 받음

- Pupil referral units (PRUs) are a type of school, established and maintained by the local authority, that provide education for children in who require alternative educational provision.

□ 법적 근거
- Education Act 1996에 의거함
- Any school established and maintained by a local education authority which
1. is specially organised to provide education for such children and
2. is not a county or special school
shall be known as a "pupil referral unit"

□ 학교와의 차이점
- 운영위원회(management committee) 구성
- 학교와 PRU에의 이중 등록 가능
- 교육과정 탄력적 운영 : full national curriculum이 운영되지 않을 수 있음

□ 관리위원회
- 하나의 관리위원회를 통하여 2개 이상의 PRU 관리 가능
- 구성 : LEA 담당자, 관내 공립학교 교장, 건강 담당자, PRU 교사, 특수교육교사, 학부모, 학교운영위원, 지역사회인사, 청소년센터 담당자, 경찰, 지역의원 등

□ 어떤 학생들이 다니는가
- 건강상의 이유로 학교에 다니지 못하는 학생, 미혼모, 임신학생, 학교공포증 환자, 일시적으로 학교 배정을 받지 못한 학생, 퇴학생, 퇴학예정학생
- 문제 행동 때문에 PRU에 재학하는 학생들과 그 외의 이유로 재학하는 학생들은 분리하여 교육함이 원칙임
- 다시 일반 학교에 복귀하는 것을 목표로 함

□ 교육과정
- 건강상의 이유 학생 : 개인별로 다르나 최소 1주에 5시간 이상 교육 의무
- 퇴학생의 경우 : 풀타임 교육, 1주 25시간 (Key Stage 4의 경우)
- PRU 자체 교육 이외에 외부 교육기관에 위탁 과정 운영 가능
- 국가교육과정 전체를 교육할 수는 없지만 영어, 수학, 과학, PSHE, ICT 등을 포함한 기본적 교육과정 교육

□ PRU 설립, 운영에 관한 구체적인 지침

Setting up a PRU
○ LEAs must tell the Secretary of State whenever they set up or close a PRU. There are no formal opening or closing procedures12 but there should be reasonable consultation locally, including with other PRUs in the area and their management committees.

○ The number of pupils in a PRU will vary. Grouping pupils by age and the nature of their referral, where possible, enables PRU staff to match the education more closely to pupils' needs. Effective education can be difficult if there is a wide mix of age range, ability and reasons for being in the PRU. LEAs may want to review their policies on this in setting up new PRUs.

The PRU management committee
○ A single management committee may cover two or more PRUs to ensure better co-ordination of education of children out of school. Members of a management committee might include:
• head teachers from maintained schools within the LEA;
• LEA officers with knowledge or experience of working with young people with behavioural difficulties;
• education and social services departments;
• local health authority;
• the teacher in charge of the PRU;
• other PRU staff;
• Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators;
• parents of pupils currently or previously attending the PRU;
• school governors;
• representatives of voluntary or charitable organisations;
• representatives from reputable local businesses and colleges or universities;
• Youth Service;
• Careers Service;
• local FE college;
• police
• elected Members of the Authority.

○ The management committee has a role in the PRU's:
• admissions;
• attendance;
• discipline;
• curriculum
• post-inspection action.

○ The teacher in charge of a PRU must provide any reports which the management committee or LEA asks for, and must report to the LEA at least once a year. Admissions and attendance

○ The LEA, with the management committee, sets the admissions policy for a PRU. The LEA should also consult the management committee about proposed changes. Pupils should be admitted to a PRU based on clear criteria and each pupil should have targets for re-integration into mainstream or special schooling, further education or employment. Day-to-day decisions on admissions to the Unit may be handled by the LEA, or delegated to the management committee or to the teacher in charge.

○ Although many young people come to PRUs with a previous record of poor attendance, failure to attend should be pursued diligently. If poor attendance is endemic, the LEA or management committee should consider possible internal and external causes and discuss these with the teacher in charge. A designated teacher should discuss the issue with the individual young person concerned.

○ Enrolment in a PRU may be suitable for some young people who are not on the register of any school and not receiving suitable education. An LEA may therefore name a PRU in a school attendance order.

○ Many pupils in PRUs will have special educational needs and a significant number will have statements, usually for emotional and behavioural difficulties. LEAs should consider carefully how best to meet the long-term needs of those with statements. If a mainstream setting is best, a short-term placement within a PRU to tackle immediate problems may aid smooth re-integration into another mainstream school. For pupils at stages 1-3 of the SEN Code, a period in a PRU might enable that assessment to continue. But if a pupil's long-term needs cannot be met in a mainstream school, a special school rather than a PRU should be named on a statement of SEN. Attendance at a PRU is not appropriate for pupils excluded from EBD special schools.

School terms and holiday sessions
○ The LEA sets the dates of PRU terms and holidays, and, with the management committee, decides the times of sessions.

○ PRU staff must13 be qualified teachers, unless they are suitably qualified instructors. Teachers in their induction year, licensed and student teachers should not be employed in PRUs. Staff entering a PRU may need induction and training in meeting the needs of difficult and disruptive children. Staff in mainstream or special schools, from home tuition or supply teaching may all provide some help to PRUs.

○ The teacher in charge of a PRU is for legal purposes the head teacher, whether or not formally employed as a head teacher. This gives them autonomy to take necessary action on site, for example about health and safety issues and pupil behaviour.

○ Teachers in PRUs need to have high expectations of the potential of their pupils, many of whom will have had negative experiences of education. Building on the LEA's initial assessment, plan and consultation with the pupil, PRU teachers should further assess each pupil's needs and draw up a plan to address them by setting realistic challenges and academic targets. Parents should be encouraged to support this work.

○ PRU staff should not be allowed to become isolated. It is good practice for a PRU always to have at least two members of staff on site to provide support in case of disruption and to give respite to staff during the day. Staff should be given time to carry out administrative tasks, to plan for individual pupils, to ease pupils' re-entry into education or employment, and to build relationships with pupils and parents.

○ The management committee should help identify staff development needs to promote high standards, and the LEA should provide opportunities for career development and in-service training. PRU staff will often benefit from training alongside colleagues from mainstream schools. Training should include National Curriculum courses as well as courses in behaviour management. Where relevant, PRU staff should be offered guidance from subject advisers on the curriculum.

○ The LEA must have a statement of curriculum policy for PRUs and arrange for handling complaints about the curriculum. The teacher in charge should prepare a statement of the curriculum aims of the Unit, reflecting the LEA's curriculum statement. The teacher must consider the views of the community, the police and the management committee in drawing up the statement. It is good practice for a PRU to have a curriculum policy that shows how staff will deliver it.

○ The LEA remains responsible for ensuring a full timetable but may delegate this to the management committee of the PRU. Day-to-day responsibility would rest with the teacher in charge. A pupil's timetable may be partly provided by other agencies or FE colleges which may offer work-related activity or part-time programmes for older pupils.

○ PRUs should offer a balanced and broadly based curriculum which:
• promotes the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils and of society; and
• prepares pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities, and experiences of adult life.

Assessment and reporting
○ Assessing attainment and progress is crucial. PRUs do not have to assess pupils at the end of each Key Stage, but should consider in individual cases whether assessment would be useful. The PRU's annual report to the LEA should report pupils' progress. For older pupils a National Record of Achievement offers a record of a pupil's achievements, not limited to academic achievements. The NRA reflects a young person's interests, skills, abilities and goals and may be useful for schools or colleges.

○ As a pupil usually spends only a short time in a PRU, the full annual reporting arrangements do not apply, but parents should nevertheless be kept informed of their child's progress. If a pupil attends a PRU for a year, parents should receive an annual report on the pupil. PRUs must report on pupils when they transfer to other schools or leave compulsory education.

Careers education and guidance
○ Many pupils in PRUs may not have received careers guidance because of repeated changes of school or because of truancy or exclusion. OFSTED's survey of careers education and guidance (October 1998) highlighted the need to improve both careers guidance in PRUs to raise pupil motivation and achievement, and to promote social inclusion. PRUs must provide careers education from Years 9 to 11.

Sex education
○ PRUs teaching pupils of secondary age must provide sex education. If children of primary age are admitted, the teacher in charge must consider whether to offer sex education. That teacher must have a written statement of policy on the content and organisation of sex education, or, if sex education is not part of the curriculum, of that decision. The LEA must ensure that it encourages pupils to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life14. In a PRU that teaches children of both primary and secondary ages, pupils of secondary age are treated as pupils at secondary schools and primary aged pupils are treated as pupils at primary schools.

Political issues
○ The LEA and teacher in charge must make sure that pupils aged under 12 in the charge of a staff member, either on or off-site, do not take part in partisan political activities. Staff must not promote partisan political views in teaching pupils of any age. Where political issues are raised, pupils should be offered a balance of opposing views.15

○ The Education (School Premises) Regulations 1996 (see DfEE Circular 10/96) apply to PRUs with certain modifications. PRUs do not have to provide:
• a head teacher's room;
• playing fields;
• staff accommodation for teachers to use for both work and social purposes.

○ LEAs may provide such accommodation particularly for PRUs that offer full-time education. LEAs must also ensure that PRU accommodation meets health, safety and fire regulations, and that it is suitable for education. Accessibility for the pupils is important.

○ The LEA and the management committee are jointly responsible for the use of PRU premises outside school hours.

○ The teacher in charge of the PRU is responsible for maintaining good order and discipline, subject to any general principles laid down by the management committee. All PRUs should have a behaviour policy. That policy, which should be reviewed annually, should promote discipline and high expectations of pupils, and cover how the PRU will deal with bullying.

Exclusions from a PRU
○ Pupils may be excluded from a PRU for a fixed period or permanently on disciplinary grounds16. The Secretary of State would expect this sanction to be used only in exceptional circumstances, for example where a pupil poses a threat to their own safety or well-being, or that of other pupils or staff. Parents of a pupil excluded from a PRU may appeal to the management committee and the LEA. LEAs and management committees may set up arrangements for hearing parents' views, as in schools. The LEA or the management committee may direct the teacher in charge of the Unit to re-instate the pupil.

○ If a pupil's behaviour cannot be managed in a Unit and results in permanent exclusion, the pupil may well have special educational needs for which a statement is needed. The LEA would then need to arrange a formal assessment of SEN. The LEA's duty to provide education applies to a pupil excluded from a PRU as to any other pupil out of school.

○ OFSTED inspects PRUs using the framework of inspection for schools, adapted for PRUs. Following an inspection, the LEA must prepare a written action plan, consulting the management committee and the teacher in charge. The management committee do not have to produce an action plan. PRUs are not within the categories of school to which arrangements for Education Associations apply.