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Early Years Foundation Stage : EYFS

23:21 24 Jul 2008
Early Years Foundation Stage : EYFS

- Childcare Act 2006 제 39조에 규정된 용어로서 유아기의 복지 및 학습발달 사항을 정하고 있음
- 5세 이하의 유아교육기관은 이 규정을 따라야 함
- 2008년 9월 효력 발생
- 복지관련 요구조건은 UK 전체에 해당되고 학습 발달 조건(Learning and Development Requirements : L&D Requirements)은 England 지역에만 해당됨

- EYFS 법률규정 자료 : Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage

- 관련 자료 : teachernet 웹사이트 참조

□ 유아교육기관 등록 의무
- 모든 보육 및 유아교육기관(childminder, nursery, kindergarten, pre-school class)은 합법적으로 운영되기 위하여는 등록되어야 함
- 등록과 등록을 유지하기 위해서는 복지규정을 준수해야 하며, England 지역의 경우 L&D 규정도 준수해야 함

□ 이례적인 학습발달 규정
- 유아교육 기관에 대한 학습 발달 규정 강제는 매우 이례적이라고 할 수 있음
· 의무교육 이전의 유아교육에 대한 의무규정이라는 점
· 정부 예산지원도 받지 않는 사설 기관에까지 효력을 발생한다는 점

□ L&D 규정에 관한 논란
- 유아들에게 학습발달 규정을 강제적으로 적용하는 것은 타당하지 않다는 유아교육 전문가들의 일반적인 믿음
- 5세 미만 어린이에게 조기 문해 교육을 강행하는 것은 효과도 없을 뿐만 아니라 역효과를 가져온다는 전문가들의 의견이 많음
- 어린 나이에의 실패 경험이 후기 학습에의 장애 초래
- 5세 의무교육 시행 자체도 조금 빠르며 6,7세 의무교육이 더 좋은 결과를 가져온다는 연구결과도 있음
- L&D 목표가 그 나이 어린이에게 타당한 것인지에 관한 논란 이외에도 지나치게 규범적(prescriptive)인 교육과정의 성격, 평가에 대한 부담, 어린이들이 받게 될 스트레스 등을 둘러싸고 이견과 논란이 많음

□ L&D Requirements 6개 영역
◦ Personal, Social and Emotional Development (인성, 사회성, 정서)
◦ Communication, Language and Literacy (의사소통, 언어, 문해능력)
◦ Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy (문제해결, 추리, 수리능력)
◦ Knowledge and Understanding of the World (세계 이해)
◦ Physical Development (신체발달)
◦ Creative Development (창의성)

□ The early learning goals and educational programmes
The statutory early learning goals (detailed below) establish expectations for most children to reach by the end of the EYFS. They provide the basis for planning throughout the EYFS, so laying secure foundations from birth for future learning. By the end of the EYFS, some children will have exceeded the goals. Other children, depending on their individual needs, will be working towards some or all of the goals - particularly some younger children, some children with learning difficulties and disabilities and some learning English as an additional language. Detailed guidance on the early learning goals and how to work with children to achieve them is set out in the Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage. The section below lists the education programmes followed by the early learning goals for each of the six areas of Learning and Development.

□ Personal, Social and Emotional Development
Educational programme
Children must be provided with experiences and support which will help them to develop a positive sense of themselves and of others; respect for others; social skills; and a positive disposition to learn. Providers must ensure support for children's emotional well-being to help them to know themselves and what they can do.

Early learning goals
By the end of the EYFS, children should:
◦ Continue to be interested, excited and motivated to learn.
◦ Be confident to try new activities, initiate ideas and speak in a familiar group.
◦ Maintain attention, concentrate, and sit quietly when appropriate.
◦ Respond to significant experiences, showing a range of feelings when appropriate.
◦ Have a developing awareness of their own needs, views and feelings, and be sensitive to the needs, views and feelings of others.
◦ Have a developing respect for their own cultures and beliefs and those of other people.
◦ Form good relationships with adults and peers.
◦ Work as part of a group or class, taking turns and sharing fairly, understanding that there needs to be agreed values and codes of behaviour for groups of people, including adults and children, to work together harmoniously.
◦ Understand what is right, what is wrong and why.
◦ Consider the consequences of their words and actions for themselves and others.
◦ Dress and undress independently and manage their own personal hygiene.
◦ Select and use activities and resources independently.
◦ Understand that people have different needs, views, cultures and beliefs, that need to be treated with respect.
◦ Understand that they can expect others to treat their needs, views, cultures and beliefs with respect.

□ Communication, Language and Literacy

Educational programme
Children's learning and competence in communicating, speaking and listening, being read to and beginning to read and write must be supported and extended. They must be provided with opportunity and encouragement to use their skills in a range of situations and for a range of purposes, and be supported in developing the confidence and disposition to do so.

Early learning goals
By the end of the EYFS, children should:
◦ Interact with others, negotiating plans and activities and taking turns in conversation.
◦ Enjoy listening to and using spoken and written language, and readily turn to it in their play and learning.
◦ Sustain attentive listening, responding to what they have heard with relevant comments, questions or actions.
◦ Listen with enjoyment, and respond to stories, songs and other music, rhymes and poems and make up their own stories, songs, rhymes and poems.
◦ Extend their vocabulary, exploring the meanings and sounds of new words.
◦ Speak clearly and audibly with confidence and control and show awareness of the listener.
◦ Use language to imagine and recreate roles and experiences.
◦ Use talk to organise, sequence and clarify thinking, ideas, feelings and events.
◦ Hear and say sounds in words in the order in which they occur.
◦ Link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.
◦ Use their phonic knowledge to write simple regular words and make phonetically plausible attempts at more complex words.
◦ Explore and experiment with sounds, words and texts.
◦ Retell narratives in the correct sequence, drawing on language patterns of stories.
◦ Read a range of familiar and common words and simple sentences independently.
◦ Know that print carries meaning and, in English, is read from left to right and top to bottom.
◦ Show an understanding of the elements of stories, such as main character, sequence of events and openings, and how information can be found in non-fiction texts to answer questions about where, who, why and how.
◦ Attempt writing for different purposes, using features of different forms such as lists, stories and instructions.
◦ Write their own names and other things such as labels and captions, and begin to form simple sentences, sometimes using punctuation.
◦ Use a pencil and hold it effectively to form recognisable letters, most of which are correctly formed.

□ Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy

Educational programme
Children must be supported in developing their understanding of Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy in a broad range of contexts in which they can explore, enjoy, learn, practise and talk about their developing understanding. They must be provided with opportunities to practise and extend their skills in these areas and to gain confidence and competence in their use.

Early learning goals
By the end of the EYFS, children should:
◦ Say and use number names in order in familiar contexts.
◦ Count reliably up to ten everyday objects.
◦ Recognise numerals 1 to 9.
◦ Use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve practical problems.
◦ In practical activities and discussion, begin to use the vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting.
◦ Use language such as 'more' or 'less' to compare two numbers.
◦ Find one more or one less than a number from one to ten.
◦ Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects and subtraction to 'taking away'.
◦ Use language such as 'greater', 'smaller', 'heavier' or 'lighter' to compare quantities.
◦ Talk about, recognise and recreate simple patterns.
◦ Use language such as 'circle' or 'bigger' to describe the shape and size of solids and flat shapes.
◦ Use everyday words to describe position.

□ Knowledge and Understanding of the World

Educational programme
Children must be supported in developing the knowledge, skills and understanding that help them to make sense of the world. Their learning must be supported through offering opportunities for them to use a range of tools safely; encounter creatures, people, plants and objects in their natural environments and in real-life situations; undertake practical 'experiments'; and work with a range of materials.

Early learning goals
By the end of the EYFS, children should:
◦ Investigate objects and materials by using all of their senses as appropriate.
◦ Find out about, and identify, some features of living things, objects and events they observe.
◦ Look closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change.
◦ Ask questions about why things happen and how things work.
◦ Build and construct with a wide range of objects, selecting appropriate resources and adapting their work where necessary.
◦ Select the tools and techniques they need to shape, assemble and join materials they are using.
◦ Find out about and identify the uses of everyday technology and use information and
communication technology and programmable toys to support their learning.
◦ Find out about past and present events in their own lives, and in those of their families and other people they know.
◦ Observe, find out about and identify features in the place they live and the natural world.
◦ Find out about their environment, and talk about those features they like and dislike.
◦ Begin to know about their own cultures and beliefs and those of other people.

□ Physical Development

Educational programme
The physical development of babies and young children must be encouraged through the provision of opportunities for them to be active and interactive and to improve their skills of coordination, control, manipulation and movement. They must be supported in using all of their senses to learn about the world around them and to make connections between new information and what they already know. They must be supported in developing an understanding of the importance of physical activity and making healthy choices in relation to food.

Early learning goals
By the end of the EYFS, children should:
◦ Move with confidence, imagination and in safety.
◦ Move with control and coordination.
◦ Travel around, under, over and through balancing and climbing equipment.
◦ Show awareness of space, of themselves and of others.
◦ Recognise the importance of keeping healthy, and those things which contribute to this.
◦ Recognise the changes that happen to their bodies when they are active.
◦ Use a range of small and large equipment.
◦ Handle tools, objects, construction and malleable materials safely and with increasing control.

□ Creative Development

Educational programme
Children's creativity must be extended by the provision of support for their curiosity, exploration and play. They must be provided with opportunities to explore and share their thoughts, ideas and feelings, for example, through a variety of art, music, movement, dance, imaginative and role-play activities, mathematics, and design and technology.

Early learning goals
By the end of the EYFS, children should:
◦ Respond in a variety of ways to what they see, hear, smell, touch and feel.
◦ Express and communicate their ideas, thoughts and feelings by using a widening range of materials, suitable tools, imaginative and role-play, movement, designing and making, and a variety of songs and musical instruments.
◦ Explore colour, texture, shape, form and space in two or three dimensions.
◦ Recognise and explore how sounds can be changed, sing simple songs from memory, recognise repeated sounds and sound patterns and match movements to music.
◦ Use their imagination in art and design, music, dance, imaginative and role-play and stories.