영국 교육정보

영국의 최신 교육정보를 확인해 보세요.

새 평가 및 자격증 감독 기구 신설 계획(DCSF 장관 발표)

Author
주영한국교육원
Date
00:01 27 Sep 2007
Views
2249
영국교육정보
2007.09.26

새 평가 및 자격증 감독 기구 신설 계획
(07.09.26 DCSF 장관 발표)

□ 새 기구 신설 계획 발표
- ED Balls DCSF 장관은 9월 26일 자격증과 평가가 제대로 시행되고 있는지를 담당할 새로운 독립기구를 설립하기 위한 법령작업을 할 계획이라고 발표
- 새로운 기구의 역할
* 자격제도와 평가의 수준 유지 노력
* 자격제도에 투입되는 정부예산의 투자가치 확보
* 현존 및 향후 신설 자격증 인증
* 평가와 자격증의 수준 관리 및 보고
* 평가시행기구 및 자격증수여 기관 관리
* 담당 업무에 대하여 DCSF가 아닌 국회에 보고서를 제출

□ ED Balls 장관의 발표 내용 요지
- 평가의 수준이 적정하게 유지되고 학생들의 성취도가 적절히 인정될 수 있도록 할 임무를 띤 독립적인 기구 설립 계획
- 지난 10년간 이 업무를 담당한 QCA의 노력은 매우 성공적이었음에도 불구하고 평가와 자격증의 수준에 관한 계속적인 논란이 있어 왔음
- QCA가 교육부에 보고서를 제출한다는 사실로 인하여 QCA의 독립성을 입증하기 힘든 상황임
- 또한 QCA가 담당하고 있는 교육과정과 평가의 두 개 업무가 한 기관에서 담당하는 것의 모순이 있는 것도 사실임. 즉 교육을 담당하는 기관에서 이를 다시 평가하는 문제가 있음
- 교육의 모든 단계에서 공정성과 높은 수준을 유지하는 책임을 다하겠다는 생각임
- 자격증과 평가의 투명성을 보장하고 수준을 일정하게 유지하는데 기여할 것으로 생각

□ 향후 QCA의 임무
- 교육과정 개발, 감독
- National Assessment Agency를 통하여 National Curriculum Test의 시행과 시험주관 기구 지원
- 직업자격증 제도의 개혁
- 각종 자격 및 평가의 기준 개발

□ 배경과 해설
- Key Stage 별로 실시되는 국가 시험에 대하여 시험이 쉬워지고 있다는 비판 여론이 계속되어 왔음
- GCSE 및 A-level 시험은 매년 그 결과가 좋아지고 있어서 학업수준 향상에 의한 것이 아닌 성적 인플레에 의한 것이라는 언론의 비판적 시각과 교육 당국에서는 학교의 교육 수준이 높아지고 열심히 가르친 결과라는 주장이 대립해 왔음
- 이러한 논란을 종식시키고 평가의 수준을 보장하기 위하여 교육부에서 완전히 독립된 새로운 기구를 설립하겠다는 계획임
- QCA에서 Qualification과 Curriculum의 개발, 시행과 평가 업무를 담당하고 이것이 제대로 시행되는지를 확인할 새로운 기구를 만들겠다는 취지

□ 출처 : DCSF Press Notice(07.09.26) "NEW INDEPENDENT REGULATOR FOR THE EXAM AND QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEM" 및 발표자료 “A NEW MODEL FOR THE REGULATION OF QUALIFICATIONS" (붙임 발표자료 참조)

(DCSF 해설 자료 전문)

NEW INDEPENDENT REGULATOR
FOR THE EXAM AND QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEM
(26 September 2007)


Ed Balls, Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families today announced that the Department will legislate to create a new independent regulator of qualifications and tests. Building on the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority’s achievements in regulation, it will be responsible for:
• continuing to secure the standards of qualifications and tests;
• ensuring that public investment in qualifications provides good value for money;
• accrediting existing and new qualifications;
• monitoring and reporting on the standards of tests and qualifications;
• regulating the awarding body market.

It will also make regular reports, which will be laid before Parliament, assessing how well the systems for maintaining standards and delivering exams are working, making recommendations for improvement, and reporting on action taken on its previous recommendations.

Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, Ed Balls, said:

“At the moment, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) both develops and regulates qualifications, and reports to ministers. The new independent regulator will help us ensure that young people and their teachers feel that their hard work and achievements are properly recognised, and give us greater confidence that exam standards are being maintained.

“The QCA has successfully led the development of qualifications and tests over the last ten years and shown robust independence in its work. An independent report said that no examination system is so tightly or carefully managed, and confidence in the system among teachers and students has grown over the past few years.

“And yet, once again, this summer we saw a debate about whether standards in qualifications had been maintained, even as the QCA and others provided reassurance that they had been. But the fact that the QCA reports to Ministers can make it harder to demonstrate that it is acting wholly independently in carrying out its regulatory role.

“We have also learned from elsewhere in Government, where organisations like the Food Standards Agency and the Competition Commission have been created. These bodies have improved public trust in the systems they regulate through independence, clarity of remit, and clear and transparent accountability.

“Independent bodies already look at appeals against admissions decisions and at the quality of teaching and learning while in school. Our plans mean that at every stage of the school system, independent bodies will have clear responsibilities for ensuring fairness and high standards.

“As we develop new qualifications such as Diplomas and pilot new tests, we need to make sure not only that they are of the highest quality, but that they are seen to be so by employers, universities and the public. The awarding body market is changing, and we need to ensure it develops in a way that promotes innovation and increases efficiency. Technology has the potential to make a big impact on assessment in the coming years, in ways we have only just started to explore.

“For all of these reasons, the time is right to make this change. We must put beyond question the independence of the public guardian of standards. We believe that our proposals will both provide greater transparency in qualifications and tests and secure the confidence in standards on which they depend.”

John Denham, Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, said

"This move will help QCA to focus on delivering our big reform agenda for qualifications for work. I will be working closely with Ed Balls over the coming weeks to ensure we get the new system up and running quickly. "

Sir Anthony Greener, QCA Chairman, said:

"QCA has always jealously guarded the separate roles of advice and regulation, and we welcome this development. Statutory independence for regulation will further safeguard the standards of exams and tests."


(DCSF 발표 내용 전문)

A NEW MODEL FOR THE REGULATION OF QUALIFICATIONS

Background
1. On 26 September 2007, the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families announced plans for reforming the regulation of qualifications and tests in England. This note sets out the background to the plans, provides more details about the proposals, and explains the arrangements that will be made to consult.

The case for reform
2. Qualifications and tests are central to ensuring that young people make good progress at all stages of schooling; to raising standards and participation at 14-19; and to improving the skills of our adult workforce to meet the economic challenges of the future.We need to make sure that the qualifications and tests taken both by young people and adults are not only relevant, engaging and of high quality, but that they continue to command the full confidence of employers, further and higher education institutions and the wider public.  We must ensure that young people and their teachers feel that their hard work and achievements are properly recognised.
3. With our partners at all levels of the education system, we must continue to raise standards and to close achievement gaps. As part of this, it is important that the information we have about the performance of the system is trusted and transparent, so that we can identify areas for development and recognise success.
4. Over the last ten years, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA), which is responsible for regulating qualifications and tests, has shown robust independence in its work as a regulator and has developed a system for assuring standards which is recognised internationally for its quality and reliability – as an independent report by the Education Director of the OECD put it in 2004, “no examination system, at the school or other level, is so tightly or carefully managed”. And confidence in the system among teachers and students has improved over the past few years. The hard work of the QCA, and its fellow regulators, means that we can be confident that standards have been maintained.
5. Yet once again, this summer, we had a public debate about standards in qualifications and tests – even as the QCA provided reassurance that standards had been maintained, and that improved results reflected the hard work of students and teachers and higher levels of investment. This kind of debate undermines the achievements of millions of students.
6.In the light of this the Government has concluded that there are two barriers to securing full confidence in the standards of qualifications and tests: ;firstly, the fact that QCA as an organisation reports to Ministers can make it harder to demonstrate that in carrying out its regulatory function it is acting wholly independently;
· secondly, there is an inherent conflict of interest between QCA’s existing functions.  QCA is responsible for developing the content of public qualifications and tests and for the actual delivery of National Curriculum tests, as well as for regulating those qualification and tests.  It is in certain significant respects a service provider to the awarding bodies which it also regulates. QCA has provided robustly independent assurance about standards in all qualifications and tests.  However, it is increasingly difficult for the Authority to be seen as a truly independent guarantor of standards in qualifications which it itself delivers or develops.
7. Now is the right time to address this issue. We need to put beyond question the independence of the public guardian of standards. Moreover, we are developing new qualifications, such as 14-19 Diplomas, and piloting new tests. We need to make sure not only that they are of the highest quality, but that they are seen to be so by employers, universities and the public.  The awarding body market is changing, and we need to ensure that it develops in a way that promotes innovation, reduces burden and increases efficiency.  Technology has the potential to make a big impact on assessment in the coming years, in ways we have only just started to explore.

The Government’s proposals
8. In drawing up our plans we have learnt from experience elsewhere in Government.  Where a key policy goal has been to improve long-term trust and credibility, the Government’s approach has been to develop transparent frameworks for decision-making by an accountable body.  We can see this in different policy arenas: in economic policy, the decision to give independence to the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of England; in the production of Government statistics, with the forthcoming launch of the Statistics Board; and in the creation of the Food Standards Agency and the Competition Commission. Each of these bodies has improved public trust in the system it regulates through a combination of independence, clarity of remit and a clear and transparent accountability framework.
9. We have decided to apply this approach to maintaining standards in qualifications, which are the key to life opportunities for young people and adults. To tackle these problems, to improve trust in the qualifications system, and to meet the wider challenges ahead, we believe that it is appropriate to create a distinct independent regulator of qualifications and tests.  It is not enough simply to make the QCA as it stands more independent of Ministers: we need to make sure that the regulator’s functions do not conflict, that they cannot have any appearance of conflict, and that there is a clearer accountability framework for the regulator. We therefore plan to legislate as soon as possible to create an independent regulatory body. The regulatory responsibilities of QCA will transfer to this new body.

The independent regulator
10. The new body will build on the achievements of QCA in developing its regulatory role. The independent regulator will be responsible for securing the standards of qualifications, tests and assessment, and for ensuring that public investment in qualifications provides good value for money.  In particular, it will accredit qualifications, monitor and report on standards of tests and qualifications, recognise awarding bodies and regulate the awarding body market.
11. We propose that it should be required to make regular reports, which would be laid before Parliament, to: assess how well the systems for maintenance of standards and delivery of exams are working; make recommendations for improvement; and report on whether previous recommendations have been acted upon.
12. The role of Ministers would be limited to making senior appointments (subject to the usual rules of public appointments), setting the remit for the regulator, and asking the regulator to investigate particular issues where appropriate.  Within its remit, the regulator would have freedom to act as necessary to uphold standards.
The remaining functions of the QCA
13.The QCA will continue to be responsible for: curriculum monitoring and development; delivering National Curriculum Tests and supporting exams officers, through the National Assessment Agency; pushing forward the reforms to vocational qualifications for young people and adults; and developing the criteria for public qualifications (such as GCSEs, A-levels and 14-19 Diplomas) which will be regulated by the new qualifications regulator and awarded by awarding bodies to which it has given formal recognition.
14. QCA will continue to work closely with the Department for Children, Schools and Families and the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills.  It will have a clear and focused remit which will enable it to concentrate on the reform and delivery of qualifications, curriculum and assessment.
15. We believe that this structure will both provide greater transparency in the arrangements for regulating and developing qualifications and tests, and secure the confidence in standards on which they depend. At every stage of the school system, independent bodies will have clear responsibilities for ensuring fairness and high standards. The Schools Adjudicator can look at appeals against admissions decisions, while Ofsted inspects the quality of teaching and learning. Our plans for reforming qualifications regulation will bring qualifications and tests into line with those arrangements.

Next steps
16. We plan to legislate as soon as possible.  To prepare the way for legislation, we will publish a consultation document in the coming weeks, which will set out more detailed proposals including on governance, appeals, the detailed operational relationship between QCA and the new regulator, and the exact powers and responsibilities of both organisations.
17. Following the consultation, we will work with the QCA to put in place shadow arrangements for the new regulator, so that we can begin to benefit from the new structure as early as possible.
18. Ministers are grateful to the Board and staff of QCA for their commitment and achievements, which have paved the way for the further developments announced today.

Department for Children, Schools and Families
September 2007