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영국의 정보공시제도 (교육기관 중심)

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주영한국교육원
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18:52 11 Jun 2008
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첨부파일 1 : 영국정보공시제도.hwp
영국의 정보공시 제도


□ Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FoIA 2000)

- 자료 탑재 웹사이트 : 클릭



- 2000.11.30 통과

- Public Records Act 1958 을 보완한 법률

- 동 법률에 의거하여 공공기관의 정보 공시가 이루어지고 있음

- 공공기관이 소유하고 있는 모든 기록 정보(recorded information)에의 국민의 접근권 보장, 예외 항목 명시, 공공기관의 의무 명시


- 동 법률은 공공기관에만 적용되며 사설기관(private entities)에는 적용되지 않음. 공공기관이라 함은 단지 정부기구와 다른 공공기구(우체국, 박물관 등) 뿐만 아니라 초중등학교, 대학도 포함됨. 공공기관이 지분의 대부분을 소유하고 있는 계열회사(spin-off companies)의 경우에도 적용됨


- 동 법률의 시행 및 감독은 Information Commissioner Office(ICO) (http://www.ico.gov.uk)에 의해 이루어지고 있음


□ 「Freedom of Information Act 2000」주요 내용

- 동 법률에 대한 설명 참고 자료 : Freedom of Act 2000: Implementation and Practice (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/pub_ib_foi.aspx)


○ 공공기관의 정보공시 관련 2가지 의무

- 정보공시계획(publication scheme) 작성 공표 의무

· 정보공시계획은 일반 국민 누구나가 접근할 수 있는 기관의 정보에 대한 안내서

· 기관안내서(prospectus), 연감(almanac), website 공시 등의 방법 활용

· 기관의 모든 부서에서 보유하고 있는 모든 정보를 포함

· publication scheme에 대한 특별한 서식이나 형식이 지정되어 있지는 않음

· 모든 기관의 publication scheme은 정보담당관(Information Commissioner)에게 제출되어 승인을 받아야 함


- 개인의 정보요청에 응할 의무

· 동 법률 이전에도 국민 모두는 자신의 개인자료(personal data)를 열람할 권리가 부여되어 있었음(Data Protection Act 1998에 의거) : "subject access right"

· 이러한 개인 정보이외에도 FIA 2000에 의하여 공공기관이 갖고 있는 모든 다른 비개인적 정보를 요청할 권리가 부여되었음. 단 법률에 명시된 예외 조항은 제외


○ 정보공시 계획 (Publication Scheme)

- 공공기관 및 각급 학교는 정보공시계획을 작성 정보담당관의 승인 후 공포하여야 함


- Publication Scheme 포함내용

· 기관이 공표하는 정보의 종류(classes of information)

· 정보 공시의 방법

· 요금 부과의 경우 요금 내역


- 정보공시계획은 문서로 정보담당관에게 제출하여 승인을 받으며, 승인이 된 후에 정보공시의 구체적인 방법은 각 기관이 자체적으로 알아서 함

- 정보공시계획은 주기적으로 검토되어야 하며 최초 승인은 5년간 유효함


- 정보공시계획에 포함되어 일괄적으로 공표된 정보에 대하여는 개인적인 정보요청에 응하지 않아도 됨


- 계속교육기관(further education)이나 고등교육기관(higher education)의 경우 정보공시계획의 표준모델이 JISC(Joint Information Systems Committee)에 의해 제시됨.


○ 정보의 요청

- 모든 국민은 공공기관에 정보를 요청할 수 있음

- 정보의 대상이 개인일 경우 Data Protection Act가 우선함

- 정보신청자는 2가지 권리를 가짐 : 해당 정보를 해당 기관에서 갖고 있는지 통보받을 권리와 가능한 경우 요청한 방식으로 정보를 받을 권리

- 정보신청은 문서로 이루어져야 하며 (이메일이나 팩스 포함), 정보신청자의 인적사항과 요구하는 정보의 세부내용이 명시되어야 함

- 정보 신청 처리는 신속히 이루어져야 함 (최대 20일의 근무일 이내)

- 약올리는 식의(vexatious) 요청이나 반복적인 요청에 대하여 이에 응할 의무는 없음


○ 정보공개 제외 항목 (Exemptions)

- 공공기관에 정보를 요청할 권한을 부여하는 동시에 23개 항의 정보공개 제외 및 제한 항목 설정

- 국가 안보, 법 집행(law enforcement), 상업적 이해관계(commercial interests), 데이터 보호 등과 관련된 사항 중심

- 정보공시계획에 의거 이미 다른 방법으로 공개하고 있는 정보에 대하여는 개인적인 요청에 응하지 않아도 됨


□ 영국 교육부의 정보공시계획

- 자료원본 탑재 사이트

: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/foischeme/_documents/DfES_FoI_113.doc


○ 정보공시 목록

1. CUSTOMER RELATIONS

- Code of Practice on Access to Government Information

- Complaints Procedure

- Data protection

- Department's Service Standards

- Freedom of Information Publication Scheme guidance

- Guidance on Contact with Journalists

- Guidance on how to handle new referrals on school admissions cases

- Guidance on how to handle new referrals on school organisation cases

- Guidelines for use of Innovation Unit mailbox

- How to contact the department

- Independent Schools Registration Customer Care Policy

- Innovation Unit strategy and processes document

- Internal guidance for dealing with phone calls from the public

- Performance against the service standards

- Policy document on access to school performance and assessment data

- Popular Questions


2. POLICIES AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT

- Consultations

- Delivering Results Our Strategy to 2006

- The Department's Publications

- Department web site

- Keynote Speeches

- Press Notices

- Research

- Statistics

- Command Papers, Green Papers and White Papers

- Education and Skills Select Committee Publications

- Legislation

- Parliamentary Questions


3. INSIDE THE DEPARTMENT

- e-Business Strategy

- Equal Opportunities Policy

- Equal Opportunities Strategy

- Health and Safety Policy

- Human Resources Strategy

- Ministerial Team

- Public Service Reform and how it relates to the Department

- Published Regulatory Impact Assessments (RIAs)

- Recruitment paths into Department

- Senior Management Meetings

- Who's Who

- Annual audited accounts

- Contracts advertised

- Contracts awarded


4. GRANTS AND LOANS

- Capital Grants available to Schools / LEAs

- Grants and Loans for Adults

- Grants available to higher education students

- Grants available to Schools and LEAs for education beyond the classroom

- Grants available to schools and LEAs for Special Education Needs

- Grants available to Schools and LEAs to improve teaching and learning to raise standards in schools

- Grants available to schools and LEAs to support curriculum development

- Grants available to schools and LEAs to support ICT development

- Grants available to schools and LEAs to support the aim of promoting social inclusion

- Grants available to Schools and LEAs to transform the school workforce

- Grants available to those involved in Sure Start and Early Years Education

- Grants for Trade Unions

- School Standard Grant

- Support for Young People


5. WORKING WITH OTHERS

- Children and young people

- Connexions Partnerships

- Involving Employers in the policy process

- Local Education Authorities

- Parents

- School Governors

- School teachers and support staff

- Strategic Framework

- Young People

- Adult Learning Inspectorate

- Basic Skills Agency

- British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta)

- Construction Industry Training Board (CITB)

- Engineering Construction Industry Training Board (ECITB)

- General Teaching Council (GTC)

- Government Offices

- Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)

- Higher Education Institutions

- Investors in People UK Ltd (IIPUK)

- Learning and Skills Council for England (LSC)

- Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA)

- Local Government Associations

- National College for School Leadership (NCSL)

- Nurseries

- Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED)

- Other Government Departments

- Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA)

- Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA)

- Sector Skills Development Agency (SSDA)

- Standing Conference of Principals

- Teacher Training Agency (TTA)

- Trade Unions

- Universities UK

- University for Industry (Ufi)


□ 고등교육기관의 정보공시 계획 모델 : Kings' College London

· King's College London의 정보공시계획 part 2


○ King's College 정보 공시 목록

1. Governance

- Legal framework

- Governance structure

- How the institution is structured

- Information on the institutional context

- Management structure


2. Financial Resources :

- Finance

- Resource planning


3. Human Resources

- Employment and employee relations

- Equal opportunities

- Human resources

- Staff development


4. Physical Resources

- Estates


5. Student Administration and Support

- Information on student admission, progression and completion

- Student accommodation

- Student administration

- Student admission and registration

- Student discipline

- Student learning support services

- Student liaison

- Student policies

- Student welfare

- Student associations and activities


6. Information Services

- Availability and conditions of use of facilities

- Mission statements and related documents

- Policies with regard to data and information

- Procurement and disposal policies

- Scope of collections held


7. Teaching and Learning

- Academic year dates

- External review information

- Graduation information

- Information on the instituition's internal procedures for assuring academic quality and standards

- Qualitative data on the quality and standards of learning and teaching

- Staffing structure of academic schools/departments

- Student assessment strategy

- Tuition fees


8. Research and Development

- Committees

- Funding

- Research policies


9. External Relations

- Alumni

- Community Liaison

- Fundraising

- Government and Regulator relations

- Marketing and recruitment

- Public relations


□ 초중등학교 정보공시계획 모델

- 원본 자료 탑재 웹사이트 : 클릭


1. School Prospectus

The statutory contents of the school prospectus are as follows, (other items may be included at the school's discretion):

- the name, address and telephone number of the school, and the type of school.

- the names of the headteacher and chair of governors.

- information about admissions.

- a statement of the school's ethos and values.

- details of any affiliations with a particular religion or religious denomination, the religious education provided, parents' right to withdraw their child from religious education and collective worship and the alternative provision for those pupils.

- information about the school's policy on providing for pupils with special educational needs.

- number of pupils on roll and rates of pupils' authorised and unauthorised absences.

- National Curriculum assessment results for appropriate Key Stages, with national summary figures.

- Use of the Welsh Language.

- GCSE/GNVQ results in the school, locally and nationally [Secondary].

- a summary of GCE A/AS level results in the school and nationally [Secondary].

- the number of pupils studying for and percentage achieving other vocational qualifications [Secondary].

- the destinations of school leavers [Secondary].


2. Governor's Annual Report and other information relating to the governing body

○ Governors' Annual Report

The statutory contents of the governors' annual report to parents are as follows, (other items may be included at the school's discretion):

- details of the governing body membership, including name and address of chair and clerk

- a statement on progress in implementing the action plan drawn up following an inspection

- a financial statement, including gifts made to the school and amounts paid to governors for expenses

- information about school security

- information about the implementation of the governing body's policy on pupils with special educational needs (SEN) and any changes to the policy during the last year

- a description of the arrangements for the admission of pupils with disabilities; details of steps to prevent disabled pupils being treated less favourably than other pupils; and details of existing facilities to assist access to the school by pupils with disabilities

- the accessibility plan covering future policies for increasing access by those with disabilities to the school (from April 2004)

- how teachers' professional development impacts on teaching and learning

- number of pupils on roll and rates of pupils' authorised and unauthorised absence

- the school's targets for Key Stage 2/Key Stage 3 assessments [Primary/ Secondary]

- National Curriculum assessment results for appropriate Key Stages, with national summary figures

- the school's targets for public examinations at Key Stage 4 [Secondary]

- GCSE/GNVQ results in the school, locally and nationally [Secondary]

- GCE A/AS and vocational qualification results in the school and nationally [Secondary]

- the number of pupils studying for and percentage achieving other vocational qualifications [Secondary].

- the destinations of school leavers [Secondary].


○ Instrument of Government

- The name of the school.

- The category of the school.

- The name of the governing body.

- The manner in which the governing body is constituted.

- The name of any person entitled to appoint any category of governor.

- Details of any trust.

- If the school has a religious character, a description of the ethos of the school.

- The date the instrument takes effect.


○ Minutes of meeting of the Governing Body and its committees


3. Pupils & Curriculum Policies

- Home - school agreement : Written statement of the school's aims and values, the school's responsibilities, theparental responsibilities and the school's expectations of its pupils for example homework arrangements

- Curriculum Policy : Statement on following the policy for national curriculum subjects, including any syllabus followed by pupils at the school

- Sex Education Policy : Written statement of policy with regard to sex education

- Collective Worship : Statement of arrangements for the required daily act

of collective worship

- Careers Education (secondary) : Statement of the programmes of careers education provided for Key Stage 4

- Pupil Discipline : Written statement of general principles on behaviour and discipline including any anti bullying policy as appropriate


4. School Policies

- Reports of School Inpections under Sections 10 and 23 of the School Inspections Act 1996 : Report of an inspection of the school and the summary of the report

- Post Inspection action plan : A plan setting out the actions required following an Estyn inspection

- Charging and remissions policies : A statement of the school's policy with respect to charges and remissions for any optional extra or board and lodging of which charges are permitted, for example music tuition, trips

- School session times : Details of school session and dates of school terms and holidays

- Special Education Needs : Information about the school's policy on providing for pupils with special educational needs

- Accessibility Plans : Written plan of improvements to access for pupils with disabilities (from April 2004)

- Health and Safety Policy : Written statement of general policy with respect to health and safety at work of employees (and others) and the organisation and arrangements for carrying out the policy

- Child Protection Policy : Statement of general principles on Child Protection arrangements (from March 2004)

- Complaints procedure : Statement of procedures for dealing with complaints

- Staff Appraisal : Statement of procedures adopted by the governing body relating to staff appraisal

- Staff Conduct, Discipline and Grievance : Statement of procedure for regulating conduct and discipline of school staff and procedures by which staff may seek redress for grievance